Research Papers Dorothea Orem
Dorothea Orem Collection
|Dorothea Orem |
by Lynne Nickle
color photograph, 8 x 10 inches, 1988
Dorothea Elizabeth Orem was born and brought up in Baltimore, Maryland. Orem attended Seton High School in Baltimore, and graduated in 1931. She received a diploma from the Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, D.C. in 1934 and went on to the Catholic University of America to earn a B.S. in Nursing Education in 1939, and an M.S. in Nursing Education in 1945. Her earliest years in nursing were spent in practice at Providence Hospital, Washington, D.C. (1934-1936, 1942) and St. John's Hospital, Lowell, Massachusetts (1936-1937). After receiving advanced degrees, Orem focused primarily on teaching, research, and administration. She served as director of the Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Detroit, Michigan from 1945 to 1948, where she also taught biological sciences and nursing (1939-1941). At the Catholic University of America, Orem served as Assistant Professor (1959-1964), Associate Professor (1964-1970), and Dean of the School of Nursing (1965-1966).
As a curriculum consultant, Orem worked with schools, departments and divisions of nursing in universities and colleges including The University of Alberta, George Brown College of Applied Arts and Technology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Georgetown University, Incarnate Word College, El Paso Community College, The Medical College of Virginia, and The Washington Technical Institute. She also served as curriculum consultant to The Office of Education, United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Practical Nurse Section in 1958, 1959, and 1960, to the Division of Hospital and Institutional Services, The Indiana State Board of Health from 1949 to 1957, and to the Center for Experimentation and Development in Nursing, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1969-1971, and to the Director of Nursing, Wilmer Clinic, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1975-1976.
In 1971 Orem published Nursing: Concepts of Practice, the work in which she outlines her theory of nursing, the Self-care Deficit Theory of Nursing. The success of this work and the theory it presents established Orem as a leading theorist of nursing practice and education. Nursing: Concepts of Practice is now in its sixth edition. She also served as chairperson of the Nursing Development Conference Group, and in 1973 edited that group's work in the book Concept Formalization in Nursing. She authored many other papers and during the 1970s and 1980s spoke at numerous conferences and workshops around the world. The International Orem Society was founded to foster research and the continued development of Orem's theories of nursing. During her life, Dorothea Orem received accolades for her contributions to the field of nursing, including honorary degrees from Georgetown University, Incarnate Word College, Illinois Wesleyan University, and the University of Missouri-Columbia. She was inducted into the American Academy of Nursing, and received awards from the National League for Nursing and the Sigma Theta Tau Nursing Honor Society.
|1969 - 1971, 1975-1976||Johns Hopkins Hospital, consultant|
Scope and Content
The Dorothea E. Orem Collection consists of teaching and consulting records, correspondence, biographical and personal records, research materials, publications, and audio-visual materials relating to Orem's life and work. These papers document the development of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory and General Theory of Nursing. The research, teaching, publication, and consulting records all provide a chronological basis for understanding this development as well as the dissemination of the Theory.
Additional material related to Orem's Self-care Deficit Theory of Nursing can be found in the following collections:
Sarah E. Allison Collection
Joan Backscheider Collection
Judy Crews-Hanks Collection
Constance Cole Waxter Collection
Policy on Access and Use
This collection may contain some restricted records. Materials pertaining to patients, students, employees, and human research subjects, as well as unprocessed collections and recent administrative records, carry restrictions on access. For more information about the policies and procedures for access, see Policy on Access and Use.
Permissions and Credits
When citing material from this collection, credit The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. For permission to reproduce images, contact the holder of the copyright.
archives at jhmi dot edu.
Dorothea E. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory
- :: 6 Works Cited
- Length: 1523 words (4.4 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
Dorothea E. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory
The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader how Dorethea Orem’s nursing theory has been used in research. Orem begin developing her theory in the 1950’s, a time when most nursing conceptual models were based on other disciplines such as medicine, psychology and/or sociology (Fawcett, 2000). Orem’s theory is a three-part theory of self-care. The three theories that make up the general theory are: Self-Care, Self-Care Deficit, and Nursing Systems. The Self-Care theory states that adults deliberately learn and perform actions to direct their survival, quality of life, and well-being. Self-Care Deficit theory states that nursing is required because of the inability to perform self-care as the result of limitations. Nursing Systems theory is the product of nursing in nursing system(s) by which nurses use the nursing process to help individuals meet their self-care requisites and build their self-care or dependent-care capabilities. These three theories form the overall Self-Care Deficit Theory. (Alligood & Tomey, 2001)
Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) is an important component of nursing’s theoretical knowledge. It is a highly developed and formalized theoretical system that includes the philosophical foundation, the general theory of nursing with its constituent elements, and an expanding body of knowledge that includes empirical research. The conceptual structure of SCDNT is constituted from six core concepts (self-care, therapeutic self-care demand, self-care agency, self-care deficit, nursing agency, nursing system, and one peripheral concept -basic conditioning factors. (Taylor, Geden, Isaramalai &, Wongvatunyu, 104)
The capacity and ability of the individual to engage in self-care is termed self-care agency (SCA). The Therapeutic Self-Care Demand (TSCD) and SCA are influenced by a number of factors or variables referred to as basic conditioning factors (BCFs). The self-care system is an action system designed in response to the TSCD and is dependent on the quality of the individual’s self-care agency. (Geden & Taylor, 329)
The first article we reviewed was titled An Empirical Test of a Self-Care Model of Women’s Responses to Battering. Battering was conceptualized with Orem’s theory as a situation requiring therapeutic self-care. Based on Orem’s theory of self-care deficit a model of women’s responses to battering was constructed. This model proposes that age, education, income, and cultural orientation are BCFs that directly related to relational conflict. This conflict would be negatively related to self-care agency and indirectly related to both outcomes of health and well-being. The proposed model suggests that the degree of relational conflict experienced by a woman in a battering situation is directly related to her ability to care for herself.
How to Cite this Page
| Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory Essay - Nursing theory is best described as a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and/or prescribing nursing care (Potter & Perry, 2009). One of the most world renown-nursing theorists, Dorothea Orem, believed in the self-care theory, which directs it’s attention on the aspect the self-care needs of the client (2009). As a registered nurse, along with many other accomplishments, she began brewing her theory that guided many nursing schools/institutions in their program of studies.... [tags: Nursing]|
:: 4 Works Cited
| Essay on Dorothea Orem's Self Care Nursing Theory Analysis - Dorothea Orem's Self Care Nursing Theory Analysis The grand theory to be analyzed in this paper is Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). The method used to analyze Dorothea Orem’s theory is Walker and Avant Theory Analysis (WAT). Theory analysis is a process of evaluating a nursing theory. The WAT is comprised of seven steps. The steps are defining the origins, meaning, logic, usefulness, details, structure and testability of the theory (McEwen & Wills, 2011). “Critical reflection of a theory determines how well the theory serves its purpose” (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p.95).... [tags: Nurse, Self Care]|
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| Essay about Orem’s Self Care Deficit Theory and its Application in Practice - One of the theories of nursing is Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, also called the self-care deficit theory. Nursing theories are important for several reasons. The profession is strengthened when knowledge is built on sound theory (Black, 2014). Theory is important for reasoning, thinking, decision-making, and supporting excellence in practice (Black, 2014). Dorothea Orem’s theory is a conceptual model that provides a structure for critical thinking in the nursing process (Black, 2014). A conceptual model provides a comprehensive and holistic perspective of nursing (Black, 2014).... [tags: Dorothea Orem, Self Care Theory]|
:: 7 Works Cited
| Self Care Deficit Theory Essay - Dorothea Orem Self care deficit Dorothea Orem considered one of the foremost nursing theorists according to (currentnursing.com) was born in 1914 in Baltimore MD. She earned her diploma in nursing from Providence Hospital School of nursing located in Washington DC around the 1930’s. She then moved forward earning a bachelor’s in education from and Masters in Education from catholic University in Washington DC. She eventually attained an Honorary Doctorates: Doctor of Science from Georgetown University (1976) and Incarnate Word College in San Antonio, Texas (1980); Doctor of Humane Letters from Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Illinois (1988); Doctor Honoris Causae, Univ... [tags: Nursing]|
:: 4 Works Cited
| Evidence Based Nursing in Geriatrics Essay - Nurses who work in the field of geriatrics, also known as gerontology, focus on caring for older adults. This is a high-demand practice area, because older people are more likely to require health services. Half of all hospital admissions are for patients over age 65, but only 1% of nurses are certified in geriatrics (ExploreHealthCareers.org, 2013). Geriatric nurses are educated to understand and treat the often complex physical and mental health needs of older people. Nurses try to help their patients protect their health and cope with changes in their mental and physical abilities, so older people can stay independent and active as long as possible.... [tags: Nursing Essays]|
:: 6 Works Cited
| Dorothea Orem's Nursing Theory Essay - Dorthea Elizabeth Orem’s Nursing Theory as it Applies to Patients With End Stage Renal Disease and Hemodialysis Treatment According to the Healthy People Database, in 2010 the aging population was estimated at 40 million, this number is expected rise to nearly 70 million by the year 2030 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000). At the forefront of health concerns for this aging population will be the intervention, management and treatment of chronic diseases. This increase in both this specific population as well as the required medical care will place a significant amount of stress on an already distressed healthcare system, which in turn will affect the availability of recourses an... [tags: Self-Care, Patients, Chronic Illness]|
:: 10 Works Cited
|Timeline of the Historical Development of Nursing Essay - “The systematic accumulation of knowledge is essential to progress in any profession. However, theory and practice must be constantly interactive. Theory without practice is empty and practice without theory is blind.”(Cross, 1981, p. 110) With any profession one must have a basis of knowledge to define its goals and standards, in nursing we define our practice by many theories that have been developed overtime. Starting with the beginning of nursing theory is the theorist Florence Nightingale.... [tags: care, patients, acute]||617 words|
| Dorothea Orem’s Self-care Concept Essay - “Nursing is an art that renders a personal service to patients” (McLaughlin Renpenning & Taylor, 2003, p. 3), regardless of age, sex, race, culture etc. Children are diagnosed everyday with diseases that cause chronic illness forcing these children to mature much faster in order to become an active participant in the care and maintenance of their illness. Take Diabetes Mellitus for example. Children who are newly diagnosed with this usually adapt quickly in knowing they need to stay on top of proper maintenance.... [tags: self-care, nursing]|
:: 5 Works Cited
| Essay on Self-Efficacy in Nursing - Concept analysis and concept development are the terms used to refer to the process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concepts used in nursing science. They are generally applied to the process of inquiry that examines concepts for their level of development as seen in their internal structure, use, representativeness, and relationship to other concepts, in the quest to promote better understanding. Much of the conceptual basis of nursing theory has been derived from already established concepts from other disciplines, and a re-examination of these concepts for relevance and fit to nursing, is important for determining its appropriateness of application (McEwen, 2007).... [tags: Nursing Essays]|
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| Concept Analysis on Self-care: Orem´s Theory on Nursing Essay examples - Concepts are essential elements in theories which provide ideas for research in nursing. Concepts give knowledge that can be applied to nursing practice, education and administration. (Parker & Smith 2010). Concept analysis brings about clarity. The methods of concept analysis have the following steps. Select the concepts, determine the purpose of the anaysis, identify all uses, define attributes, a model case of the concept, consequences of the concept, and define empirical references of the concept (Walker & Avant 1995) I chose to do a concept analysis on ‘Self-Care.’ The nursing theory that uses this concept is Orem’s theory of nursing.... [tags: nursing, patients, information]|
:: 7 Works Cited
Dorothea Nursing Deficit General Theory Systems Theory Well-being Capabilities Component Agency Inability
Both frequency and severity of conflict and self-care agency were expected to influence the relationship of the BCF with health outcomes. Health and well-being were deduced as being related to self-care. Self-care agency is thought to be related to the same outcomes as self-care. Knowledge from prior testing of Orem’s self-care deficit theory, particularly related to the conceptual entities of self-care agency, health, and well-being, provided additional scientific support for formulating the hypothesized relationships among the variables. The endogenous variables are identified as health and well-being. These variables are hypothesized to be positively related to self-care agency alone. (Campbell & Weber, 45)
The final derivative model structure was different from that originally proposed. The theoretical base of the original model was an effort to extend Orem’s self-care deficit theory of nursing with the inclusion of relational conflict. Relational conflict was placed between the BCF’s of age, education and culture, and self-care agency. Self-care agency was proposed to affect both well-being and health. In the final analysis, self-care agency explained 9% of the variance in the final model, with relational conflict explaining 39.9% and health, 51%. The BCF’s age and education affected self-care agency which directly influenced health. (Campbell & Weber, 51)
Orem’s model is supported by these findings in terms of self-care agency having an effect on health. There was a strong correlation between a measure of the power components of self-care agency and self-esteem. This supported Orem’s description of self-care agency as structurally consisting of foundational capabilities, power components, and capabilities for self-care operations. (Campbell & Weber, 45). However, for abused women, the relationship problems had a stronger effect on their physical and mental health then their ability to take care of themselves. The derivative model also supported relationships between basic conditioning factors and self-care agency as proposed by Orem. (Campbell & Weber, 52)
The next article we reviewed was Theoretical and Empirical Description of Adult Couples’ Collaborative Self-Care Systems. This article was a descriptive study of a collaborative care system (CCS) using Orem’s Self-Care Deficit nursing theory.
CCS is an action system. Inherent in the CCS is a concept of shared work resulting in negotiated roles for integrating and performing actions to meet the requirements for care. The negotiation includes the identification of Therapeutic Self-Care Demands (TSCD’s). The CCS comprises the interaction of the individuals’ self-care systems. Whereas the TSCD and self-care agency can be described for each individual, the action system in a CCS is less open to such individual analysis. The CCS is described by measuring the capabilities of the adults for self-care and their estimates of the other’s capacity to care for self. (Geden & Taylor, 329-330)
BCF’s measured were cohesion, adaptability, age, reciprocity, self-reported estimate of health in general, and self-reported estimate of health at this time. The study hypothesized that the couple’s family system score would predict the couple’s CCS and that their ages and estimates of health in general and health at this time, as well as estimates of caregiver reciprocity, would add to the explanation of the couples CCS. Cohesion in the family, dyad gender, and the couple’s estimate of their health now accounted for 27% of the variance in the couple’s CCS. Caregiver reciprocity scores, age, and estimates of health in general failed to make a significant contribution to the statistical model. In this study several shortfalls were noted, but it was proven that there was congruence between the data analyses and theoretical model. (Geden & Taylor, 331&334)
The last article reviewed was Research-Based Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing. This article reviewed the research done to date on Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory. The authors identified 143 studies and 66 of the studies were used in this review.
The article discusses philosophical perspective, Ontology of Orem’s Theory, Epistemology, Practical Science and Models and Theories. The authors used an electronic search using six databases. The subject and key terms used were Orem’s self-care model. A total of 143 journal articles were identified as using Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory. Sixty-seven of the articles were dropped because self-care theory was used only as an organizing framework or a rational for the research or because a general definition or concept of self-care was used for the study. The remaining 66 articles were synopsized using the theoretical elements, unit of analysis subject characteristics, instruments used, and research method used. The intent was to identify contributions and trends. (Taylor et al., 107)
The study concluded that less than half examined elements of the theory of self-care without making the link to nursing practice an explicit part of the study. Studies like these increases our knowledge about self-care but further work is needed to put the results of these in the context of nursing practices. Most of the studies provided an enhanced or broader description of an element or component of the theory, empirically describing the relationship between or among age, gender, self-care actions, disease, and so forth. These studies add to our understanding of existing and known or proposed relationships within the extant theory. There are many studies but little evidence that sustained research program are developing and expanding the theory. (Taylor et al., 108)
In conclusion I use an excerpt from Ms Orem from a newsletter of the International Orem Society for Nursing Science and Scholarship. “The task of nursing science development may appear overwhelming. However, the vast and accumulation of subject matter in nursing could be examined for its location within the domain and boundaries of nursing or its location in the basic sciences and then examined for its validity and reliability in its reflection of human nature and in its value in guiding nursing practice. This would be accompanied by its allocation to one of the suggested nursing sciences or to its elimination. This form of scholarly activity has been engaged in be scholars and researchers in other fields, at some stage of development of their sciences.”(Nov, 2000)
Alligood, R.A., and Tomey A. M. (2002). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application
(2nd Ed.) St. Louis: Mosby.
Campbell, J., and Weber, N. (2000). An Empirical Test of a Self-Care Model of Women’s Responses to Battering. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13:1, 45-53.
Fawcett, J. (2000). Analysis and Evaluation of Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Nursing Models and Theories. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.
Geden, E., & Taylor, S. (1999). Theoretical and Empirical Description of Adult Couples’ Collaborative Self-Care Systems. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12:4, 329-334.
Orem, D., Online (2000). International Orem Society Newsletter. www.muhealth.org/~nursing/scdnt/november00.htm.
Taylor, S. G., Geden, E., Isaramalai, S., and Wongvatunyu, S. (2000). Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory: Its Philosophic Foundation and the State of the Science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13:2, April 103-110.