Shifting Experience Of Self A Bibliographic Essays
What is ‘the perception of time’?
The very expression ‘the perception of time’ invites objection. Insofar as time is something different from events, we do not perceive time as such, but changes or events in time. But, arguably, we do not perceive events only, but also their temporal relations. So, just as it is natural to say that we perceive spatial distances and other relations between objects (I see the dragonfly as hovering above the surface of the water), it seems natural to talk of perceiving one event following another (the thunderclap as following the flash of lightning), though even here there is a difficulty. For what we perceive, we perceive as present—as going on right now. Can we perceive a relation between two events without also perceiving the events themselves? If not, then it seems we perceive both events as present, in which case we must perceive them as simultaneous, and so not as successive after all. There is then a paradox in the notion of perceiving an event as occurring after another, though one that perhaps admits of a straightforward solution. When we perceive B as coming after A, we have, surely, ceased to perceive A. In which case, A is merely an item in our memory. Now if we wanted to construe ‘perceive’ narrowly, excluding any element of memory, then we would have to say that we do not, after all, perceive B as following A. But in this article, we shall construe ‘perceive’ more broadly, to include a wide range of experiences of time that essentially involve the senses. In this wide sense, we perceive a variety of temporal aspects of the world. We shall begin by enumerating these, and then consider accounts of how such perception is possible.
Kinds of temporal experience
There are a number of what Ernst Pöppel (1978) calls ‘elementary time experiences’, or fundamental aspects of our experience of time. Among these we may list the experience of (i) duration; (ii) non-simultaneity; (iii) order; (iv) past and present; (v) change, including the passage of time. It might be thought that experience of non-simultaneity is the same as experience of time order, but it appears that, when two events occur very close together in time, we can be aware that they occur at different times without being able to say which one came first (see Hirsh and Sherrick 1961). We might also think that perception of order was itself explicable in terms of our experience of the distinction between past and present. There will certainly be links here, but it is a contentious question whether the experience of tense—that is, experiencing an event as past or present—is more fundamental than the experience of order, or vice versa, or whether indeed there is such a thing as the experience of tense at all. This issue is taken up below. Finally, we should expect to see links between the perception of time order and the perception of motion if the latter simply involves perception of the order of the different spatial positions of an object. This is another contentious issue that is taken up below.
One of the earliest, and most famous, discussions of the nature and experience of time occurs in the autobiographical Confessions of St Augustine. Augustine was born in Numidia (now Algeria) in 354 AD, held chairs in rhetoric at Carthage and Milan, and become Bishop of Hippo in 395. He died in 430. As a young adult, he had rejected Christianity, but was finally converted at the age of 32. Book XI of the Confessions contains a long and fascinating exploration of time, and its relation to God. During the course of it Augustine raises the following conundrum: when we say that an event or interval of time is short or long, what is it that is being described as of short or long duration? It cannot be what is past, since that has ceased to be, and what is non-existent cannot presently have any properties, such as being long. But neither can it be what is present, for the present has no duration. (For the reason why the present must be regarded as durationless, see the section on the specious present, below.) In any case, while an event is still going on, its duration cannot be assessed.
Augustine's answer to this riddle is that what we are measuring, when we measure the duration of an event or interval of time, is in the memory. From this he derives the radical conclusion that past and future exist only in the mind. While not following Augustine all the way to the mind-dependence of other times, we can concede that the perception of temporal duration is crucially bound up with memory. It is some feature of our memory of the event (and perhaps specifically our memory of the beginning and end of the event) that allows us to form a belief about its duration. This process need not be described, as Augustine describes it, as a matter of measuring something wholly in the mind. Arguably, at least, we are measuring the event or interval itself, a mind-independent item, but doing so by means of some psychological process.
Whatever the process in question is, it seems likely that it is intimately connected with what William Friedman (1990) calls ‘time memory’: that is, memory of when some particular event occurred. That there is a close connection here is entailed by the plausible suggestion that we infer (albeit subconsciously) the duration of an event, once it has ceased, from information about how long ago the beginning of that event occurred. That is, information that is metrical in nature (e.g. ‘the burst of sound was very brief’) is derived from tensed information, concerning how far in the past something occurred. The question is how we acquire this tensed information. It may be direct or indirect, a contrast we can illustrate by two models of time memory described by Friedman. He calls the first the strength model of time memory. If there is such a thing as a memory trace that persists over time, then we could judge the age of a memory (and therefore how long ago the event remembered occurred) from the strength of the trace. The longer ago the event, the weaker the trace. This provides a simple and direct means of assessing the duration of an event. Unfortunately, the trace model comes into conflict with a very familiar feature of our experience: that some memories of recent events may fade more quickly than memories of more distant events, especially when those distant events were very salient ones (visiting a rarely seen and frightening relative when one was a child, for instance.) A contrasting account of time memory is the inference model. According to this, the time of an event is not simply read off from some aspect of the memory of it, but is inferred from information about relations between the event in question and other events whose date or time is known.
The inference model may be plausible enough when we are dealing with distant events, but rather less so for much more recent ones. In addition, the model posits a rather complex cognitive operation that is unlikely to occur in non-human animals, such as the rat. Rats, however, are rather good at measuring time over short intervals of up to a minute, as demonstrated by instrumental conditioning experiments involving the ‘free operant procedure’. In this, a given response (such as depressing a lever) will delay the occurrence of an electric shock by a fixed period of time, such as 40 seconds, described as the R-S (response-shock) interval. Eventually, rate of responding tracks the R-S interval, so that the probability of responding increases rapidly as the end of the interval approaches. (See Mackintosh 1983 for a discussion of this and related experiments.) It is hard to avoid the inference here that the mere passage of time itself is acting as a conditioned stimulus: that the rats, to put it in more anthropocentric terms, are successfully estimating intervals of time. In this case, the strength model seems more appropriate than the inference model.
The specious present
The term ‘specious present’ was first introduced by the psychologist E.R. Clay, but the best known characterisation of it was due to William James, widely regarded as one of the founders of modern psychology. He lived from 1842 to 1910, and was professor of philosophy at Harvard. His definition of the specious present goes as follows: ‘the prototype of all conceived times is the specious present, the short duration of which we are immediately and incessantly sensible’ (James 1890). How long is this specious present? Elsewhere in the same work, James asserts ‘We are constantly aware of a certain duration—the specious present—varying from a few seconds to probably not more than a minute, and this duration (with its content perceived as having one part earlier and another part later) is the original intuition of time.’ This surprising variation in the length of the specious present makes one suspect that more than one definition is hidden in James' rather vague characterisation.
There are two sources of ambiguity here. One is over whether ‘the specious present’ refers to the object of the experience, namely a duration in time, or the way in which that object is presented to us. The second is over how we should interpret ‘immediately sensible’. James' words suggest that the specious present is the duration itself, picked out as the object of a certain kind of experience. But ‘ immediately sensible’admits of a number of disambiguations. So we could define the specious present as:
- the span of short-term memory;
- the duration which is perceived, not as duration, but as instantaneous;
- the duration which is directly perceived — i.e. not through the intermediary of a number of other, perhaps instantaneous, perceptions;
- the duration which is perceived both as present and as extended in time.
If James means the first of these, that would certainly explain his suggestion that it could last up to a minute. But this does not seem to have much to do specifically with the experience of presentness, since we can certainly hold something in the short-term memory and yet recognise it as past. James may be thinking of cases where we are listening to a sentence: if we did not somehow hold all the words in our conscious mind, we would not understand the sentence as a whole. But it is clear that the words are not experienced as simultaneous, for then the result would be an unintelligible jumble of sounds. (2) is illustrated by the familiar fact that some movements are so fast that we see them as a blur, such as when we look at a fan. What is in fact taking place at different times is presented as happening in an instant. But this is not standardly what is meant by the specious present. (3) is a construal that is found in the literature (see, e.g., Kelly 2005), but it is not obvious that that is what James had in mind, since James is concerned with the phenomenology of time perception and whether or not an experience constitutes a direct or indirect perception of an interval does not seem to be a phenomenological matter. (Besides which, as Kelly points out, we might think it odd to suppose that past parts of the interval could be directly perceived.)
That leaves us with (4): a duration which is perceived both as present and as temporally extended. This present of experience is ‘specious’ in that, unlike the objective present (if there is such a thing — see The metaphysics of time perception below) it is an interval and not a durationless instant. The real or objective present must be durationless for, as Augustine argued, in an interval of any duration, there are earlier and later parts. So if any part of that interval is present, there will be another part that is past or future.
But is it possible to perceive something as extended as a present? If we hear a short phrase of music, we seem to hear the phrase as present, and yet — because it is a phrase rather than a single chord — we also hear the notes as successive, and therefore as extending over an interval. If this does not seem entirely convincing, consider the perception of motion. As Broad (1923) puts it, ‘to see a second-hand moving is quite a different thing from "seeing" that a hour-hand has moved.’ It is not that we see the current position of the second hand and remember where it was a second ago: we just see the motion. That leads to the following argument:
(1) What we perceive, we perceive as present. (2) We perceive motion. (3) Motion occurs over an interval. Therefore: What we perceive as present occurs over an interval.
Still, there is more than an air of paradox about this. If successive parts of the motion (or musical phrase, or whatever change we perceive) are perceived as present, then surely they are perceived as simultaneous. But if they are perceived as simultaneous, then the motion will simply be a blur, as it is in cases where it is too fast to perceive as motion. The fact that we do not see it as motion suggests that we do not see the successive parts of it as simultaneous, and so do not see them as present. But then how do we explain the distinction to which Broad directs our attention?
One way out of this impasse is to suggest that two quite distinct processes are going on in the perception of motion (and other kinds of change). One is the perception of successive states as successive, for example the different positions of the second hand. The other is the perception of pure movement. This second perception, which may involve a more primitive system than the first, does not contain as part the recognition of earlier and later elements. (Le Poidevin 2007, Chapter 5.)
Past, present and the passage of time
The previous section indicated the importance of distinguishing between perceiving the present and perceiving something as present. We may perceive as present items that are past. Indeed, given the finite speed of the transmission of both light and sound (and the finite speed of transmission of information from receptors to brain), it seems that we only ever perceive what is past. However, this does not by itself tell us what it is to perceive something as present, rather than as past. Nor does it explain the most striking feature of our experience as-of the present: that it is constantly changing. The passage (or apparent passage) of time is its most striking feature, and any account of our perception of time must account for this aspect of our experience.
Here is one attempt to do so. The first problem is to explain why our temporal experience is limited in a way in which our spatial experience is not. We can perceive objects that stand in a variety of spatial relations to us: near, far, to the left or right, up or down, etc. Our experience is not limited to the immediate vicinity (although of course our experience is spatially limited to the extent that sufficiently distant objects are invisible to us). But, although we perceive the past, we do not perceive it as past, but as present. Moreover, our experience does not only appear to be temporally limited, it is so: we do not perceive the future, and we do not continue to perceive transient events long after information from them reached our senses. Now, there is a very simple answer to the question why we do not perceive the future, and it is a causal one. Briefly, causes always precede their effects; perception is a causal process, in that to perceive something is to be causally affected by it; therefore we can only perceive earlier events, never later ones. So one temporal boundary of our experience is explained; what of the other?
There seems no logical reason why we should not directly experience the distant past. We could appeal to the principle that there can be no action at a temporal distance, so that something distantly past can only causally affect us via more proximate events. But this is inadequate justification. We can only perceive a spatially distant tree by virtue of its effects on items in our vicinity (light reflected off the tree impinging on our retinas), but this is not seen by those who espouse a direct realist theory of perception as incompatible with their position. We still see the tree, they say, not some more immediate object. Perhaps then we should look for a different strategy, such as the following one, which appeals to biological considerations. To be effective agents in the world, we must represent accurately what is currently going on: to be constantly out of date in our beliefs while going about our activities would be to face pretty immediate extinction. Now we are fortunate in that, although we only perceive the past it is, in most cases, the very recent past, since the transmission of light and sound, though finite, is extremely rapid. Moreover, although things change, they do so, again in most cases, at a rate that is vastly slower than the rate at which information from external objects travels to us. So when we form beliefs about what is going on in the world, they are largely accurate ones. (See Butterfield 1984 for a more detailed account along these lines.) But, incoming information having been registered, it needs to move into the memory to make way for more up to date information. For, although things may change slowly relative to the speed of light or of sound, they do change, and we cannot afford to be simultaneously processing conflicting information. So our effectiveness as agents depends on our not continuing to experience a transient state of affairs (rather in the manner of a slow motion film) once information from it has been absorbed. Evolution has ensured that we do not experience anything other than the very recent past (except when we are looking at the heavens).
To perceive something as present is simply to perceive it: we do not need to postulate some extra item in our experience that is ‘the experience of presentness.’ It follows that there can be no ‘perception of pastness’. In addition, if pastness were something we could perceive, then we would perceive everything in this way, since every event is past by the time we perceive it. But even if we never perceive anything as past (at the same time as perceiving the event in question) we could intelligibly talk more widely of the experience of pastness: the experience we get when something comes to an end. And it has been suggested that memories—more specifically, episodic memories, those of our experiences of past events—are accompanied by a feeling of pastness (see Russell 1921). The problem that this suggestion is supposed to solve is that an episodic memory is simply a memory of an event: it represents the event simpliciter, rather than the fact that the event is past. So we need to postulate something else which alerts us to the fact that the event remembered is past. An alternative account, and one which does not appeal to any phenomenological aspects of memory, is that memories dispose us to form past-tensed beliefs, and is by virtue of this that they represent an event as past.
We have, then, a candidate explanation for our experience of being located at a particular moment in time, the (specious) present. And as the content of that experience is constantly changing, so that position in time shifts. But there is still a further puzzle. Change in our experience is not the same thing as experience of change. We want to know, not just what it is to perceive one event after another, but also what it is to perceive an event as occurring after another. Only then will we understand our experience of the passage of time. We turn, then, to the perception of time order.
How do we perceive precedence amongst events? A temptingly simple answer is that the perception of precedence is just a sensation caused by instances of precedence, just as a sensation of red is caused by instances of redness. Hugh Mellor (1998), who considers this line, rejects it for the following reason. If this were the correct explanation, then we could not distinguish between x being earlier than y, and x being later than y, for whenever there is an instance of one relation, there is also an instance of the other. But plainly we are able to distinguish the two cases, so it cannot simply be a matter of perceiving a relation, but something to do with our perception of the relata. But mere perception of the relata cannot be all there is to perceiving precedence. Consider again Broad's point about the second hand and the hour hand. We first perceive the hour hand in one position, say pointing to 3 o'clock, and later we perceive it in a different position, pointing to half-past 3. So I have two perceptions, one later than the other. I may also be aware of the temporal relationship of the two positions of the hand. Nevertheless, I do not perceive that relationship, in that I do not see the hand moving. In contrast, I do see the second hand move from one position to another: I see the successive positions as successive.
Mellor's proposal is that I perceive x precede y by virtue of the fact that my perception of x causally affects my perception of y. As I see the second hand in one position, I have in my short-term memory an image (or information in some form) of its immediately previous position, and this image affects my current perception. The result is a perception of movement. The perceived order of different positions need not necessarily be the same as the actual temporal order of those positions, but it will be the same as the causal order of the perceptions of them. Since causes always precede their effects, the temporal order perceived entails a corresponding temporal order in the perceptions. Dainton (2001) has objected to this that, if the account were right, we should not be able to remember perceiving precedence, since we only remember what we can geuinely perceive. But there seems no reason to deny that, just because perception of precedence may involve short-term memory, it does not thereby count as genuine perception.
There is a further disanalogy between perception of colour and perception of time order. What is perceived in the case of colour is something that has a definite spatio-temporal location. The relation of precedence, in contrast, is not something that has any obvious location. But causes do have locations, so the perception of precedence is rather harder to reconcile with the causal theory of perception than the perception of colour (Le Poidevin 2004, 2007).
In effect, Mellor's idea is that the brain represents time by means of time: that temporally ordered events are represented by similarly temporally ordered experiences. This would make the representation of time unique. (For example, the brain does not represent spatially separated objects by means of spatially separated perceptions, or orange things by orange perceptions.) But why should time be unique in this respect? In other media, time can be represented spatially (as in cartoons, graphs, and analogue clocks) or numerically (as in calendars and digital clocks). So perhaps the brain can represent time by other means. One reason to suppose that it must have other means at its disposal is that time needs to be represented in memory (I recall, both that a was earlier than b, and also the experience of seeing a occur before b) and intention (I intend to F after I G), but there is no obvious way in which Mellor's ‘representation of time by time’ account can be extended to these.
On Mellor's model, the mechanism by which time-order is perceived is sensitive to the time at which perceptions occur, but indifferent to their content (what the perceptions are of). Daniel Dennett (1991) proposes a different model, on which the process is time-independent, but content-sensitive. For example, the brain may infer the temporal order of events by seeing which sequence makes sense of the causal order of those events. One of the advantages of Dennett's model is that it can account for the rather puzzling cases of ‘backwards time referral’, where perceived order does not follow the order of perceptions. (See Dennett 1991 for a discussion of these cases, and also Roache 1999 for an attempt to reconcile them with Mellor's account.)
The metaphysics of time perception
In giving an account of the various aspects of time perception, we inevitably make use of concepts that we take to have an objective counterpart in the world: the past, temporal order, causation, change, the passage of time and so on. But one of the most important lessons of philosophy, for many writers, is that there may be a gap, perhaps even a gulf, between our representation of the world and the world itself, even on a quite abstract level. (It would be fair to add that, for other writers, this is precisely not the lesson philosophy teaches.) Philosophy of time is no exception to this. Indeed, it is interesting to note how many philosophers have taken the view that, despite appearances, time, or some aspect of time, is unreal. In this final section, we will take a look at how three metaphysical debates concerning the nature of the world interact with accounts of time perception.
The first debate concerns the reality of tense, that is, our division of time into past, present and future. Is time really divided in this way? Does what is present slip further and further into the past? Or does this picture merely reflect our perspective on a reality in which there is no uniquely privileged moment, the present, but simply an ordered series of moments? A-theorists say that our ordinary picture of the world as tensed reflects the world as it really is: the passage of time is an objective fact. B-theorists deny this. (The terms A-theory and B-theory derive from McTaggart's (1908) distinction between two ways in which events can be ordered in time, either as an A-series—that is in terms of whether they are past, present or future — or as a B-series—that is according to whether they are earlier than, later than, or simultaneous with other events.)
For B-theorists, the only objective temporal facts concern relations of precedence and simultaneity between events. (I ignore here the complications introduced by the Special Theory of Relativity, since B-theory—and perhaps A-theory also—can be reformulated in terms which are compatible with the Special Theory.) B-theorists do not deny that our tensed beliefs, such that a cold front is now passing, or that Sally's wedding was two years ago, may be true, but they assert that what makes such beliefs true are not facts about the pastness, presentness or futurity of events, but tenseless facts concerning precedence and simultaneity (see Mellor 1998, Oaklander and Smith 1994). On one version of the B-theory, for example, my belief that there is a cold front now passing is true because the passing of the front is simultaneous with my forming the belief. Now one very serious challenge to the tenseless theorist is to explain why, if time does not pass in reality, it appears to do so. What, in B-theoretic terms, is the basis for our experience as-of the passage of time?
The accounts we considered above, first of the temporal restrictions on our experience, and secondly of our experience of time order, did not explicitly appeal to tensed, or A-theoretic notions. The facts we did appeal to look like purely B-theoretic ones: that causes are always earlier than their effects, that things typically change slowly in relation to the speed of transmission of light and sound, that our information-processing capacities are limited, and that there can be causal connections between memories and experiences. So it may be that the tenseless theorist can discharge the obligation to explain why time seems to pass. But two doubts remain. First, perhaps the A- theorist can produce a simpler explanation of our experience. Second, it may turn out that supposedly B-series facts are dependent upon A-series ones, so that, for example, a and b are simultaneous by virtue of the fact that both are present.
What is clear, though, is that there is no direct argument from experience to the A-theory, since the present of experience, being temporally extended and concerning the past, is very different from the objective present postulated by the A-theory. (See Prosser 2005, 2007, 2012.)
The second metaphysical issue that has a crucial bearing on time perception is connected with the A/B-theory dispute, and that is the debate between presentists and eternalists. Presentists hold that only the present exists (for an articulation of various kinds of presentism, and the challenges they face, see Bourne 2006), whereas eternalists grant equal reality to all times. the two debates, A- versus B-theory and presentism versus eternalism, do not map precisely onto each other. Arguably, B-theory is committed to eternalism, but A-theorists may not necessarily endorse presentism (though Bourne argues that they should).
How might his be connected to perception? According to the indirect (or, as it is sometimes called, representative) theory of perception, we perceive external objects only by perceiving some intermediate object, a sense datum. According to the direct theory, in contrast, perception of external objects involves no such intermediary. Now, external objects are at varying distances from us, and, as noted above, since light and sound travel at finite speeds, that means that the state of objects that we perceive will necessarily lie in the past. In the case of stars, where the distances are very considerable, the time gap between light leaving the star and our perceiving it may be one of many years. The presentist holds that past states, events and objects are no longer real. But if all that we perceive in the external world is past, then it seems that the objects of our perception (or at least the states of those objects that we perceive) are unreal. It is hard to reconcile this with the direct theory of perception. It looks on the face of it, therefore, that presentists are committed to the indirect theory of perception. (See Power 2010, Le Poidevin 2015b.)
The third and final metaphysical issue that we will discuss in the context of time perception concerns causal asymmetry. The account of our sense of being located at a time which we considered under Past, present and the passage of time rested on the assumption that causation is asymmetric. Later events, it was suggested, cannot affect earlier ones, as a matter of mind-independent fact, and this is why we do not perceive the future, only the past. But attempts to explain the basis of causal asymmetry, in terms for example of counterfactual dependence, or in probabilistic terms, are notoriously problematic. One moral we might draw from the difficulties of reducing causal asymmetry to other asymmetries is that causal asymmetry is primitive, and so irreducible. Another is that that the search for a mind-independent account is mistaken. Perhaps causation in intrinsically symmetric, but some feature of our psychological constitution and relation to the world makes causation appear asymmetric. This causal perspectivalism is the line taken by Huw Price (1996). That causal asymmetry should be explained in part by our psychological constitution, in a way analogous to our understanding of secondary qualities such as colour, is a radical reversal of our ordinary assumptions, but then our ordinary understanding of a number of apparently objective features of the world—tense, absolute simultaneity—have met with similarly radical challenges. Now, if causal asymmetry is mind-dependent in this way, then we cannot appeal to it in accounting for our experience of temporal asymmetry—the difference between past and future.
But the facts of perception may themselves constitute a problem for perspectivalism over causal asymmetry. We will leave the topic of time perception with the following conundrum for proponents of causal perspectivalism. Consider the following causally ordered (but not directed) series:
Assuming, as perspectivalism holds, that causation is intrinsically symmetric, β stands in exactly the same causal relation to Φ as it does to κ. However, although not directed, the series is ordered in that the relation of causal betweenness holds between items. Thus β is causally between Φ and κ. But then, if this is so, it is not clear how perspectivalism could explain why the following principle holds:
If β is a perceptual experience, then it cannot have both Φ and κ as its object
This principle does not beg the question against perspectivalism by smuggling in an assumption about causal asymmetry. For it is surely a trivial fact about our perception of time that if A is experienced as occurring before B, A and B cannot be experienced as simultaneous. And it is surely an objective (although non-trivial) fact that our experience of A will be causally between A and our experience of B. Now if perspectivalism cannot answer the challenge to explain the truth of the above principle, it seems that our experience of temporal asymmetry, insofar as it has a causal explanation, requires causation to be objectively asymmetric.
One strategy the causal perspectivalist could adopt (indeed, the only one available) is to explain the asymmetric principle above in terms of some objective non-causal asymmetry. Price, for example, allows an objective thermodynamic asymmetry, in that an ordered series of states of the universe will exhibit what he calls a thermodynamic gradient: entropy will be lower at one end of the series than at the end. We should resist the temptation to say that entropy increases, for that would be like asserting that a road goes uphill rather than downhill without conceding the perspectival nature of descriptions like ‘uphill’. Could such a thermodynamic asymmetry explain why perception points in one direction? That is a thought for the reader to ponder.
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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Black History, Culture, and Literature Bibliography
- Subject: Black History, Culture, and Literature
- Black History, Culture, and Literature:
- Curricula, Resources, and Articles
- in Honor of African Americans
- Fall 1993
ED356040 Author: Ferguson,-F.-Michael Title: Parents and Teachers as Collaborators in Building Positive Self Concepts in Young Children. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 113 p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This practicum was designed to help children in an early childhood community center understand themselves and others as being unique, and having worth and dignity. It was intended that parents and teachers would develop a partnership and work in a collaborative manner on behalf of the children. Surveys of participating parents and teachers indicated that the lack of cooperation between parents and children resulted from parents' lack of training in effective parenting skills and teachers' lack of the skills they needed to work effectively with young children. To remedy this situation, a consultant implemented and evaluated 24 in-service training sessions and 8 counseling sessions with 29 parents and 10 teachers in child development, effective parenting skills, early childhood education, and multicultural education. The sessions provided parents with effective strategies for recognizing developmentally appropriate behaviors in their children, provided teachers with training in multicultural education, and built collaboration between teachers and parents. It is concluded that all goals of the practicum were met. Appendices provide related materials, including an African and African American diagnostic inventory; a family contact rating scale; a children's self-concept scale; parent and teacher survey questionnaires; and a classroom inventory checklist.
ED355520 Author: Kline,-Lucinda Title: African-American Children's Literature. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 27 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's literature. The first section of the paper deals with the history of this body of literature and designates the 1890s as the first decade in which books written for children of color were published and includes a survey of representative titles. The next section describes the present- day status of such work and includes discussion of specific picture books, folktales, and historical novels. The last section of the paper predicts the future of literature written for children of color, notes that the demand for this kind of literature has steadily increased over the last 3 decades, and suggests that the current commitment to multi- cultural education will only continue to increase that demand. The paper concludes that the changing demographics of today's society not only leave children of color at a disadvantage if diversities are not explored, studied, and accepted, but also predicts real difficulty for white children who will have to cope with the first American minority- majority. Thirty-two footnotes are attached.
ED355474 Author: McCabe,-Allyssa Title: All Kinds of Good Stories. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 63 p.; Based on a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (42nd, San Antonio, TX, December 2-5, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Drawing attention to different models of storytelling, this paper summarizes information about specific aspects of children's oral narrative structure in several cultures and explores some implications these aspects have for multicultural education programs that include stories. The paper first describes a methodology for trying to understand narratives from different cultures, which might be termed a "derived etic procedure." The paper then discusses some cultural differences in storytelling, noting that: (1) European-American children often tell personal narratives that resemble fairy tales in general form; (2) Japanese children living in America tend to tell stories that are cohesive collections of several experiences they have had (usually three); (3) African-American children often begin and end with a theme, improvising upon events in between those two points; and (4) Latino children foreground their family connections to events, places, and even times. The paper also discusses two areas of classroom life affected by cultural differences in story-telling style: social interaction and curriculum. The paper concludes that narratives from all children tend to involve self-presentation around events that have happened to them in the past. A list of 109 references and a translation and transcription of a discussion between a Salvadoran child and an adult are attached.
ED354468 Author: Lee,-Courtland-C. Title: Empowering Young Black Males. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 107 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this book is to provide school counselors and related mental health professionals with important information to help them address the crisis of the Black male. The focus of the book is on Black male educational empowerment and how pupil personnel professionals can promote it in the school setting. The book examines important issues in the development of young Black males that must be understood to effectively facilitate their educational and social empowerment. In addition, it provides direction for implementing intervention programs that promote Black male empowerment in elementary and secondary schools. The book also suggests ways to actively involve teachers and the inherent strengths of Black communities in this important process. Chapter 1 offers an overview and interpretation of current statistical data on Black male educational progress from grades K-12. Chapter 2 examines the early psychosocial development of Black males. Chapter 3 discusses Black culture and its role in the development of the Black male. Chapter 4 is comprised of four Empowerment Training Modules that provide specific instructions on implementing a variety of approaches. Module 1 describes "The Young Lions," an empowerment program for Black males in grades 3-6. Module 2 describes "Black Manhood Training," a counseling program designed to promote the transition from boyhood to manhood of adolescent Black males. Module 3 is concerned with tapping respected elders in the community as male role models for Black youth. Module 4 addresses problems for Black male students that exist in the educational system and describe counselors' roles in educational advocacy. The four modules include listings of resources. Chapter 5 is a call to action for school counselors and related professionals that presents a comprehensive plan for the empowerment of young Black males. This book is designed as an action manual for school counseling professionals. The appendixes provide four poems and three classroom activities.
ED354293 Author: Ogbu,-John-U.; Wilson,-John, Jr. Title: Mentoring Minority Youth: A Framework. Publication Year:  Notes: 68 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the mentoring of African American youth, critiques the accepted theoretical basis for most programs, and offers an alternative framework. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 describes conventional mentoring and contains two case studies of programs in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). A key finding of the case studies is that in many cases, the proteges did not feel a need for mentoring, and so entered the relationship with very different goals from those of the mentors. Section 3 discusses the theoretical assumptions behind planned mentoring that African American youth, especially males, are members of the "underclass" that emerged in the 1970s. This section argues that this is not a phenomenon that emerged so recently but rather a problem faced by African Americans as a minority group. Section 4 presents the paper's thesis that the absence of role models of mainstream success in the inner-city is due to adaptation to involuntary minority status, which produces traditional success models different from those of the mainstream and makes the adoption of mainstream role models problematic. Section 5 focuses on role models and folk-heroes of African American history and culture growing out of the adaptation to involuntary minority status. A total of 110 references is included.
ED354179 Author: Kailin,-Clarence-S. Title: Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 151 p.; Photographs may not reproduce clearly. For the first and second editions of this document, see ED 170 236 and ED 200 506. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the Depression, and the protest era of the 1960s to the opening of the 1990s decade. A bibliography of nearly 750 resources divides relevant works into such topics as general history, the Post-Reconstruction era, and works focused on legal and cultural subjects. Included in the book are notes about the author, a foreword, and the prefaces to the first, second, and third editions. Black and white photographs portraying leading figures and events in African American history also are included. ED354065 Author: Cooper,-Renatta-M. Title: The Impact of Child Care on the Socialization of African American Children. Pacific Oaks Occasional Papers. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the National Black Child Development Institute Conference (St. Louis, MO, October 23-25, 1991) and at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (New Orleans, LA, November 12-15, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses some of the factors that impede or assist in the socialization process of African-American children in day care centers and in elementary schools. It is maintained that most child care and school environments support the hegemonic dominance of European- American culture and values, while discouraging the culture and values of African-American children. The majority of the paper addresses the biculturation process and key cultural components that should be part of any program striving to serve African-American children. The "Seven Black Family Dynamics," developed by Wade Nobles, are utilized to provide a structure for analyzing cultural components that may be taken for granted when children are socialized in a traditional family context, but which must be identified, represented, and respected by those providing child care and education to African-American children. These dynamics include an Elastic Family, Multiple Parenting, Strong Kinship Bonds, Role Flexibility, Work Orientation, Child Centeredness, and a Strong Religious Orientation. These seven dynamics need to be encouraged and made a part of every African-American child's socialization process.
ED353983 Author: Minor,-Dorothy, Comp. Title: The African-American Experience in the United States. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 142 p.; For related documents, see IR 054 359-360. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This annotated bibliography describes braille and recorded books presenting African-American personalities and concerns in fiction and nonfiction. Approximately 480 items are indexed. The bibliography is divided between recorded and braille titles and by fiction and nonfiction. There are separate sections for juvenile titles reflecting these divisions. Books for junior and senior high readers were placed in the juvenile sections; books for high school and adult readers were placed in the adult sections. Some of the books are part of the Cassette Book Florida Collection, which are recorded by volunteers. A title index is provided.
ED353622 Author: Hudson,-Herman-C., Ed. Title: Spike Lee and Commentaries on His Work. Occasional Papers Series 2, No. 1. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 92 p.; A Martha C. Kraft Professorship Publication. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This monograph presents a critical essay and a comprehensive 454-item bibliography on the contemporary African-American filmmaker, Spike Lee. The essay, entitled "African-American Folklore and Cultural History in the Films of Spike Lee" (Gloria J. Gibson-Hudson), analyzes Lee's filmmaking approach from a cultural and historical perspective. The essay identifies Lee as a contemporary storyteller weaving his tales with the aid of a camera and demonstrates how his film narratives draw on both the historic and contemporary experiences of African Americans. The essay discusses five of Lee's films (made between 1984 and 1991) thematically, categorizing them under intra-racial issues and inter- racial issues. The bibliography (by Grace Jackson-Brown) provides citations from both scholarly and popular literature, encompassing newspaper articles, journal and magazine articles, chapters or sections from books, and reviews of films (most of the citations date from the last 5 years). The extensive 49-page bibliography is intended to be a comprehensive guide to literature that will assist students and researchers with an interest in Spike Lee. It is divided into six broad subject areas: Biography, Interviews, Production and Direction, Books and Book Reviews, Film Criticism and Film Reviews, and Entrepreneurship and Conduct of Life.
ED353588 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Positive Use of Rap Music in the Classroom. Publication Year:  Notes: 18 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: As an extension of African-Americans' rich language and musical heritage and abilities, rap music has some value in the educational setting. Rap music started as a dance fad beginning in the mid-1970s among Blacks and Hispanics in New York's outer boroughs. It is another generational brand of Black language and musical usage and an extension of Black verbal and rhetorical strategies. Rap offers a series of precepts to live by and a way to understand and deconstruct the language which oppresses its listeners. Since rap songs or lyrics are intended to be spoken and not sung, they have great value as a unique form of poetry. Educators have commented on the finer points of rapping and rap music and see its value in the classroom because of its outstanding stylistic makeup. Because of its focus on presenting a message, rap has become a forceful mechanism that can be useful in the instruction of America's youth. Some of the ways rap can be used in the classroom include: (1) select, play, listen to and view, and discuss the contents or messages of rap music with a positive message; (2) have students write and present raps about aspects of particular classroom lessons; (3) create rap lecture notes on history and science; and (4) see how raps are used effectively in television or radio commercials. Teachers should use rap music occasionally to motivate and instruct, not as an everyday teaching tool. (Twenty-seven references are attached.)
ED353179 Author: Johnson,-Jennifer, Ed. Title: Milton M. Holland: Panola County Recipient of the Medal of Honor. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 81 p.; Published by Loblolly, Inc., Gary, TX. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This publication features an article about Milton M. Holland, a black American from East Texas, who is credited with being the first black Texan to have won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the U.S. Civil War. The articles in the issue concern Milton Holland and other black Americans who served in the Civil War. The articles include: "Milton M. Holland" (Archie P. McDonald); "Interview with Dorothy Franks" (Loblolly staff); "The Afro American Texans" (Institute of Texan Cultures); "The Badge of Gallantry" (Joseph P. Mitchell); "The Congressional Medal of Honor" (Ohio Historical Research Society); "Individual Decorations of the Civil War and Earlier" (John Wike); "The Heights of Glory" (Robert A. Webb); "From Slavery to Freedom" (Frank R. Levstik); and "Politician and Educator" (Frank R. Levstik).
ED353171 Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Secondary School Course of Study. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 127 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: This secondary school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theatre, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. The appendix includes a glossary of terms.
ED353170 Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American Experience. Curriculum Guide: Elementary and Middle School Course of Study. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 135 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theater, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. Appendices include: (1) Calendar of African American Events; (2) Events to Remember; (3) Additional Sources of Information; (4) Matrix of Cross-Curricular Activities; (5) Letters to Parents; (6) Visiting the Museum; (7) Museum Activities; (8) Labels from the Exhibition; (9) Teacher Bibliography; (10) Student Bibliography; (11) Audio-Visual Bibliography; and (12) Glossary of Terms.
ED352288 Author: Secundy,-Marian-Gray, Ed.; Nixon,-Lois-LaCivita, Ed. Title: Trials, Tribulations, and Celebrations: African-American Perspectives on Health, Illness, Aging, and Loss. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 336 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: This book is an anthology of short stories, narratives, and poems exploring aspects of the life cycle (birth, illness, aging, loss and grief) from an African-American perspective. The book is intended to give health care providers and interested others insights into the African-American experience, and to encourage readers to explore the implications of living in and providing services for a multicultural community. The book includes fictional and autobiographical literature from a number of noted U.S. writers, including Alice Walker, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, James Weldon Johnson, Sterling Brown, Toni Cade Bambara, Paule Marshall, and Maya Angelou.
ED352276 Author: Dunston,-Aingred-Ghislayne Title: Post World War II Civil Rights Movement: The Struggle for Democracy and Beyond. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 20 p.; Paper presented at the Conference on Development of Democracy after World War II in Germany and the United States (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, September 24-30, 1989). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Two main ideas are put forth in this paper: a description of the struggle of African-Americans to become full participants in the democratic process both before and after World War II; and an argument posited that through these struggles African Americans exposed the imperfections and weaknesses of the democratic society and provided for themselves a blueprint of how to resist oppression successfully. The roots of the Civil Rights movement of the 20th century can be found in the historical experience of African-Americans in which they were systematically excluded from the democratic process. Highlights of the Civil Rights movement included specific incidents, marches and protests, the formation of organizations, legal efforts, and other tools utilized to promote social and political change. African-Americans had little choice but to resort to mass concerted pressure and to take their efforts outside the existing democratic structure, because the American ideals of equality and liberty did not, in reality, yet apply to them. The paper concludes by arguing that the struggle of African-Americans for civil rights provided a blueprint for successful resistance used by other disadvantaged groups in the 1960s and 1970s. A 28-item bibliography is included.
ED351708 Author: Eyo,-Bassey-A. Title: Intercultural Communication Education: An Afrocentric Perspective. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 21 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Communication Association (Chicago, IL, April 11-14, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the implications of "Afrocentricity" for intercultural communication education. The paper's task is fourfold. First, it provides the meaning of Afrocentricity as an interpretive and corrective episteme; next, it examines Afrocentricity as context for civility in intercultural communication education; third, it provides a brief review of African philosophy and culture; and finally, the paper synthesizes commentaries of Molefi Asanti, Chinua Achebe, and Dona Richards which buttress the Afrocentric philosophy of respect for others, unity, complementarity, polycentered ways of knowing, rhythm, harmony and communal concern. The paper argues that Afrocentric philosophy is holistic, inclusive, and grounded in complementarity, and that it stands in contrast to Eurocentric premises of "binary opposition" and hegemony. A list of 18 references is attached.
ED351133 Author: Fox,-Jill-Englebright Title: A Selected Review of Literature on African American Culture. Publication Year:  Notes: 38 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: One method teachers can use in educating themselves about cultures different from their own is to read literature about the cultural backgrounds of students in their classes. This literature review is designed to provide teachers with descriptions of sources of information about cultural influences on African-American children. It also explains how an awareness of African-American culture, with its unique combination of African and Euro-American traditions, can help classroom teachers develop relationships and structure relevant learning experiences for African-American children of all ages. The review discusses the impact of cultural experiences on the learning style, behavior, social interactions, language, and values of African-American children. The following topics are also covered: (1) the dual socialization of African-Americans; (2) the role of the black family in shaping the personality of children and in helping children survive; (3) African-American children in single-parent families; (4) the role of the extended family and African-American institutional networks in providing emotional and social support; (5) the socialization of African-American males; (6) the social orientation of African-American females; and (7) the role of the African-American church in providing fellowship, adult role models, and material and human resources essential for the well- being of black families.
ED350369 Title: Introducing African American Role Models into Mathematics and Science Lesson Plans: Grades K-6. SP: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 313 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC13 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This guide presents lesson plans, with handouts, biographical sketches, and teaching guides, which show ways of integrating African American role models into mathematics and science lessons in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into mathematics and science sections, which each are subdivided into groupings: kindergarten through grade 2, grades 3 and 4, and grades 5 and 6. Many of the lessons can be adjusted for other grade levels. Each lesson has the following nine components: (1) concept statement; (2) instructional objectives; (3) male and female African American role models; (4) affective factors; (5) materials; (6) vocabulary; (7) teaching procedures; (8) follow-up activities; and (9) resources. The lesson plans are designed to supplement teacher-designed and textbook lessons, encourage teachers to integrate black history in their classrooms, assist students in developing an appreciation for the cultural heritage of others, elevate black students' self-esteem by presenting positive role models, and address affective factors that contribute to the achievement of blacks and other minority students in mathematics and science. Affective factors include developing positive attitudes in the early and middle grades, developing the ability to persist in the face of barriers, addressing stereotyping in mathematics and the sciences, understanding the utility of achievement in mathematics and science for everyday life and future careers, and maximizing the teacher's role as a positive significant other for the student. Three appendixes provide a summary of factors influencing minority student participation in mathematics and science, bibliographies of African and African American contributions to mathematics and science, and resources for incorporating African American role models in mathematics and science.
ED350359 Author: Scott,-Hugh-J. Title: Reflections on Black Consciousness and Afrocentrism. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 14 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This essay offers reflections on Black consciousness and Afrocentrism in the United States, especially as movements in education. The paper opens by recalling the history of oppression and rejection that influences the African American heritage. Next, the essay traces some highlights in the development of ideas of race consciousness from the early part of the 20th century on. In connection with this theme, it is asserted that Black history has been continually distorted, ignored, and suppressed within the academic community and the educational establishment. The paper traces the development of Afrocentrism and explores its use in education as well as the development of African American studies. A further look at the relation between cultural groups in the United States and the role of Western ideas in the formation of the nation looks at an "Anglo-Saxon conformity model" and a melting-pot model and discusses their limitations. The final section discusses the challenges facing African American scholars and teachers who must maintain scholarly integrity. In addition, the conclusion treats the future of African American disciplines at the nation's universities suggesting that acceptance of this discipline will be resisted and will continue to make slow progress.
ED350275 Author: Dana,-Nancy-Fichtman Title: Developing an Understanding of the Multicultural Classroom: Experiences for the Monocultural Preservice Teacher. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators (71st, New Orleans, LA, February 16-20, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Demographic projections indicate that the classrooms of the future will be quite different from those of the past because of the increasing language and ethnic diversity found among the American student population. As a result, there has been increasing concern about preparing monocultural teachers for multicultural classrooms. Teacher education literature provides a limited framework for designing courses to prepare teachers for a classroom student culture different from their own. One of the most valuable avenues available to the preservice teacher who attempts to enter and understand a different culture is the avenue of reading literature. Exposure to children's literature that includes an array of cultural settings can help preservice teachers develop an understanding and appreciation of the diversity of cultures both within and outside the United States. Exposure to this literature will also help them develop a repertoire of readings which they can incorporate into their teaching practices. In a preservice course at Florida State University, children's literature was used to prepare White preservice student teachers to work with African American students in Leon County, Florida. This paper discusses selection of appropriate literature and gives specific examples of children's books and their use in the college course. Two categories of books are discussed: socially conscious books, which are written by White or African American authors for White audiences to acquaint readers with the African American condition; and culturally conscious books, which are written by African American authors who portray the uniqueness of being African American from the author's own perspective.
ED349703 Author: Mack,-Carl, Jr. Title: Mistaken Identity and Issues in Multicultural Education. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 6 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: Working through a group approach with the community will help school districts reach a multicultural, multiracial consensus to ensure an excellent and equitable education for every child. There is a valid role for Afrocentric and Eurocentric concepts in a pluralist context which includes Hispanic, Native American, and Asian perspectives as well. School boards should continue to expand their efforts to meet the needs of our increasingly diverse student population in three areas: (1) development and implementation of board policy that improves the district's multicultural perspective; (2) assurance of affirmative hiring practices; and (3) review and refinement of the multicultural aspects of the district's curriculum. These actions should be driven by the single objective of improving student performance. A process referred to as the "three sets of three questions" strategy can help board members check on the soundness of any major proposal by dealing with three levels--personal, ramifications, and contingencies.
ED349552 Author: Frisk,-Philip-Justin Title: Rap Music and the First- Year Writing Curriculum. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Numerous critics have repeatedly called for the use of curricular materials drawn from the learner's everyday world, and for many of today's students, one valuable source is the lyrics of contemporary rap music. In first-year writing courses at Michigan State University, the words to one rap song, "You Must Learn" by the group Boogie Down Productions, have been used with some success. Four student responses to the text of the song demonstrate that students are capable of conceiving more or less "successful readings" of the song. One student sees the song as an attack on traditional middle-class, white- based schooling. Another student picks up on one of the song's points, the traditional curriculum's insult to a black mentality. Another student notices the complaint about the repression of black history, while the fourth student notes that the failing student in the song is labelled as rebellious. A final example illustrates a less successful response to the song in which the student inserts her own points of view rather than identifying those of the lyrics. Rather than dismiss this last student response, however, the teacher should try to discover what motivates it. David Bartholomae has conceptualized methods by which teachers can interpret such responses. Moving beyond Bartholomae's concept, the paper states that such students can be seen as "brainwashed" by dominant ideologies which repress rebellion. These students must be trained to operate in academic discourse models. In short, English teachers cannot evade the critical study of ideologies.
ED349357 Author: Levine,-Richard Title: Bringing Black History Home: Oral Sketches of the Black Experience from Africa to Montgomery to Bedford-Stuyvesant. Publication Year:  Notes: 19 p.; Document contains light type. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the program, which begins with research at the library on black history and interviews of three generations in the students family about their opinions and their experiences as Black persons and culminates in an assembly during which students and their relatives, teachers, and other staff gather to share personal experiences and to hold a mock- civil rights march. An overview further describes the goals and incentives to students. Another section describes activities, assignments, evaluations, and projects for the first 5 days of the project. A conclusion describes the personal experiences and enthusiasm for the project of the teacher who developed it. Attached are a letter sent to parents announcing the program, sample lesson plans for three classes, and a copy of the program and script from the assembly held at Satellite East Junior High School.
ED348950 Author: Jolivet,-Linda Title: African and African American Audio Visual Materials: A Selected List for Public Libraries. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 57 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this guide is to provide a selected, recommended list of video titles that were produced by or are adaptations of works by African or African American authors. The focus of this bibliography is on videos that depict the Black experience from a Black perspective, contribute to the knowledge of Africa, or tell the accurate story of the political and cultural experience of Africans and African Americans. A primary objective of this selected list is to highlight quality documentaries and dramatic titles frequently overlooked in public library video collections. Emphasis in these materials is less on technical quality and more on the quality of the stories being told, images being projected, and the contribution of the work from an Afrocentric perspective. This bibliography may serve as a reference source for patrons, librarians, or teachers in public libraries, as well as school, university, and research libraries. Intended for adult, young adult, and general audiences, the materials listed include items of interest to a wide range of individuals from junior high school to adult. There are separate sections on videotapes for children, videodiscs and computer software, and review and selection sources. Each entry includes the names of the producer, director, and distributor as well as a summary. Lists of distributors, film festivals, and the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame (1990) Competition Awards are appended, and an alphabetical index of titles is provided.
ED348856 Author: Cyrus,-Stanley-A.; Legge,-June-M. Title: Afro- Hispanic Literature: Cultural and Literary Enrichment for the Foreign Language Classroom. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 13 p.; In: Acting on Priorities: A Commitment to Excellence. Dimension: Languages '90. Report of Southern Conference on Language Teaching; see FL 020 470. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Millions of people of African descent in Spanish-speaking countries are commonly omitted from the cultural, literary, and linguistic content of Spanish classes. Afro-Spanish literature can be integrated into the Spanish curriculum from the first year. This literature is not easily defined, but does reflect and aid in understanding the black experience in Latin America. It has the important traits of: (1) romanticism, modernism, and negrism combined in a syncretic core; (2) advocacy and affirmation of the experience it reflects; (3) concern for fraternity transcending ethnic groups; (4) satirical tone; (5) emphasis on nature's beauty; (6) kinesthetic emphasis, as on dance; (7) romantic sentimentalism; and (8) rhythms, patterns, and other elements of African language. A chronological approach to the study of the literature enables the student to see developments over time as they affect black Latin Americans. The novel is a good source of outstanding Afro-Hispanic work; several are suggested. Incorporation of Afro-Hispanic literature into the Spanish curriculum can help provide both a more pluralistic outlook and better cultural understanding. A brief bibliography is included.
ED348424 Author: Lucas,-Alice, Ed. Title: Twelve Years a Slave: Excerpts from the Narrative of Solomon Northup. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 49 p. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. ABSTRACT: "Twelve Years a Slave" is a script intended to go with accompanying audio cassettes. It was developed for Voices of Liberty (a project of New Faces of Liberty) and was produced by the San Francisco Study Center as one of their "Cutting Edge Curriculum Materials." The story told by the script is excerpted from the 1989 edition (by Louisiana State University Press) of "Twelve Years a Slave", edited by Sue Eakin and Joseph Logsden, which was based on the original 1853 edition. Northup was a free black man in New York who was kidnapped to Washington D.C. and sold into slavery in 1841. The account is a valuable addition to the literature of slave narratives, written from the perspective of one who was both critic and chattel. On his eventual return to New York and freedom, an account of his 12 years as a slave in Louisiana was published. The title page and etchings are replicas of the originals. The text is largely original with the exception of portions identified as "narrator," which were written for this abridged version.
ED348264 Author: Jones,-Adrienne-Lash Title: Struggle among Saints: Black Women in the YWCA, 1860-1920. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 18 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians (Louisville, KY, April 1991). EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) was an extremely popular organization among black women. During this time the YWCA enjoyed a reputation as a leader in interracial affairs. Internally, however, the structure of the YWCA protected the prevailing racial status quo. Black women were served almost exclusively in separate branches, and while there were black staff members, there was no black representation on the National Board, nor on city Association boards. Black women undertook to participate effectively within the YWCA and overcame the structural and ideological barriers with which they were faced. By 1920, while its structure was flawed and racially based, the YWCA provided a forum in which black women could talk with white women, and demonstrate their readiness to address issues of class, gender, and race.
ED347887 Author: Gill,-Wanda-E. Title: The History of Maryland's Historically Black Colleges. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 57 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a history of four historically Black colleges in Maryland: Bowie State University, Coppin State College, Morgan State University, and the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. The history begins with a section on the education of Blacks before 1800, a period in which there is little evidence of formal education for African Americans despite the presence of relatively large numbers of free Blacks throughout the state. A section on the education of Blacks from 1800 to 1900 describes the first formal education of Blacks, the founding of the first Black Catholic order of nuns, and the beginning of higher education in the state after the Civil War. There follow sections on each of the four historically Black institutions in Maryland covering the founding and development of each, and their responses to social changes in the 1950s and 1960s. A further chapter describes the development and manipulation of the Out of State Scholarship Fund which was established to fund Black students who wished to attend out of state institutions for courses offered at the College Park, Maryland campus and other White campuses from which they were barred. Included are a timeline of important events in higher education for Blacks in Maryland and 35 references.
ED347560 Author: Bristow,-M.-B.-Smith Title: Toward a Theory of Reading Black Feminists' Writings. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 11 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Black feminist novelists continue to take issue with males who try to theorize about their artistic creations. Male attitudes toward black women's novels have been characterized as either apathetic, chauvinistic, or paternalistic. Black feminist writers should heed the call for collective racial progress and collective theoretical progress. The next stage will entail the establishment of a theory, perhaps a reception theory, for reading/studying black feminist writings. Males' attempts to theorize about black feminist literature often betray a disturbing paternalism. What is needed is a reception theory involving a tripartite hermeneutics consisting of understanding, explanation, and application coupled with perceptions of the sociology of language, literacy, and literature. Relationships between female characters in black women's lesbian fiction should be taken as metaphors for how the reader should receive the work. This reception theory sees the reader as symbiotic mother and symbolic mother, and can be demonstrated through a reading of the Toni Morrison novel, "Sula." The character Sula can be viewed as a great mother archetype. The reader should also bear in mind the powerful feminine mythology that creative women writers are heir to, such as African goddess paradigms. Finally, "Sula" is a novel about making meaning, a classic postmodern text endlessly reconstructing itself, a virtual carnival of repetitions.
ED347260 Author: Wheelan,-Belle-S. Title: Making Public Education Work for Black Males. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 28 p.; Paper prepared for the National Conference on Preventing and Treating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse, HIV Infection, and AIDS in the Black Community (2nd). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: National data show that, while more money is being spent on education and legislation has been written to guarantee equal access to the educational process, the nation is still losing black males to crime and joblessness. Teachers must have high expectations for young black males, and they must avoid the labeling and stereotyping that make these young men think they have no place in the academic world. The traditional models of education in the United States seem to be very inefficient with black male children. Afrocentric curricula designed to broaden traditional curricula may be more effective. An Afrocentric curriculum can be developed so as to legitimize and explore African American culture while teaching about European and other cultures. Several alternative approaches have been suggested to make schools more effective for young African American males. Among them is the idea of single sex elementary schools for boys. The first Virginia African American Summit of civic, religious, professional, and political leaders put together a five-point plan to focus on the needs of African American children. A further effort is the planned First Annual Black Male Development Conference. Such initiatives help empower the black parent to take responsibility for shaping the educational system. There is a 56-item list of references.
ED346195 Author: Gill,-Wali Title: Who Will Teach African American Youth? Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p.; Speech delivered at the Annual Conference of the Metropolitan Detroit Alliance of Black School Educators (Lansing, MI, March 16, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Disparities between Whites and African Americans exist in many areas in U.S. society. These disparities are exacerbated by social ills, including the Persian Gulf conflict. Positive change on the part of African American educators is required to combat these problems. The following four postulates for teaching African American youth are provided: (1) develop as a holistic person via African American culture; (2) be a positive role model for African American youth; (3) use effective classroom and administrative practices in order for African American youth to learn; and (4) make a commitment to two human service and two professional organizations. To go forward as a people, African Americans must look to the past and the nurturing provided for the current generation of adults, the accomplishments of African Americans must be recognized in curricula for African American students, educators must look for inspiration to people of color who have achieved, and educators and students must look to their African heritage.
ED346015 Title: An African-American Bibliography: History. Selected Sources from the Collections of the New York State Library. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 23 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This bibliography lists selected resources of the New York State Library that document and comment on the experience of African Americans in the history of the United States. In addition to primary sources and significant historical works, the bibliography contains references to bibliographies and research aids. Although the bibliography covers the African-American experience from the colonial period to the present, it emphasizes the post World War II period and the civil rights movement.
ED343566 Author: Van-Noate,-Judith-E., Comp. Title: Afro-American Studies: A Research Guide. 1992 Edition. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 63 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This guide has been prepared to enable students at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte to locate material on topics in Afro-American studies or topics with Afro-American emphasis in the J. Murrey Atkins Library. Although a number of sources listed within the guide relate specifically to Afro-American studies, many others treat the black American experience in a variety of fields including business, literature, politics, and education. The guide begins by introducing the reader to the Library of Congress subject headings found in the traditional card catalog as well as the ALADDIN online catalog, and providing brief instructions for using these catalogs. This introduction is followed by reference listings for dictionaries, general encyclopedias, Afro-American encyclopedias and handbooks, and broad discipline encyclopedias. A guide for finding biographical information is then provided, followed by bibliographic citations for biographies and autobiographies, black studies, history and politics, humanities, social sciences, women's studies, and literature. Periodical indexes are also listed, including interdisciplinary indexes, business, criminal justice/law, education, medicine/nursing/health, history, literature and the arts, political science, religion/philosophy, science, and sociology indexes. Guidelines are also provided for finding information through essays in books, abstracts, newspaper indexes, InfoTrac, the Periodicals and Serials List of Atkins Library, government documents, statistical information, special collections, and microform source material.
ED343128 Author: Reimer,-Kathryn-Meyer Title: Multiethnic Literature: Holding Fast to Dreams. Technical Report No. 551. Publication Year: 1992 Notes: 16 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of children's literature written by and about people of color, little multiethnic literature is available. However, the situation has improved somewhat. In recent years there has been a greater focus in African-American literature upon folk tales, family stories, family histories, and biographies. Still, books about the Hispanic, Asian, or Native American experience mostly have tended to be written about, not by, members of those groups. An examination of stories from trade books and basal reading programs presented on the third-grade level found no non-white main characters. No other ethnic groups were represented. A similar scarcity of multicultural content was found in former U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett's suggested reading list and Jim Trelease's 1989 reading list. Readers from commercial publishers reflected greater diversity. The examination of multiethnic literature raises such questions as: who is writing the works; how ethnic groups are portrayed in illustrations; whether stereotypes are employed; whether separate cultures are grouped together under such labels as "Hispanic" or "Asian"; how broad an ethnic selection of reading material is presented to children; and how long multiethnic literature remains in publication. As multiethnic literature is made more available, demand for it will increase. (A list of 44 references is attached.)
ED341077 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Varieties of Relevant Approaches for Teaching African-American Literature in the 1990s. Publication Year:  Notes: 13 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: A teacher of Black American literature may be overwhelmed by the amount of material that should be covered. Black American literature has origins in African, European, American Indian, and Black American features. Students should be able to read works of Black American literature that show how other people feel. A complete course can give students the opportunity to gain a knowledge of Black culture and the roots of the Black American, instilling a sense of pride in Black students. As White students learn about the evils that their ancestors committed, they need to feel the teacher's care and respect for White students, and need to be able to discuss their feelings without fear of reprisals. Literature anthologies and thematic books should include Black American authors. Special training in Black American literature is a must for all English teachers today. Black American literature may be taught in a class that emphasizes such themes of human nature as myth, social protest, or ghetto life. It may be presented in genre classes such as Black American Fiction or Black American Drama. Black American literature may be presented in general genre classes along with non- Black American literature of the same genre. It may be presented according to historical period, major literary trend, and in introductory courses. Teachers may have the class engage in free discussions of the literature and the issues it raises. Teachers and students must refine their sensibility and open their minds to different ways of thinking. (Sixteen references are attached.)
ED340790 Author: Hill,-Paul, Jr. Title: "Forward To the Past": Africentric Rites of Passage. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 23 p.; Paper presented at the Conference of the 21st Century Commission on African- American Males (Washington, DC, May 24, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: No ceremony or rite exists to usher the African American male youth into proper manhood. Such ceremonies, referred to as rites of passage, mark commonly agreed-upon standards, activities, tasks, and trials that each youth must master to achieve the community-sanctioned title "man." The clear articulation and subsequent implementation of such a process will have a measurable effect in reducing the effect of current destructive forces in American urban society to which the African American male child is exposed. The basis of these rites of passage is found in African heritage. In American society, schools do not fulfill the requirements of a true rite of passage. Development of an Africentric rite of passage should begin with an examination of the principles of education and socialization found in Africa. An example of such a process is the Simba Wachanga (Kiswahili for "young lions") program in Cleveland (Ohio). With the addition of a component for females, this program evolved into an Africentric rite of passage that was replicated successfully throughout Ohio. Rites of passage for African American youth must be Africentric and grounded in the black value system. The concept provides an opportunity to develop and nurture a much-needed generation of African American youth.
ED339663 Author: Cryan-Hicks,-Kathryn-T. Title: W. E. B. Du Bois: Crusader for Peace. With a Message from Benjamin L. Hooks. Picture-Book Biography Series. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 51 p.; Illustated by David H. Huckins. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: A biogaphy of W. E. B. Du Bois is presented in this book for young children. Du Bois is widely regarded as the foremost black intellectual from the United States. A great scholar, he was the first black American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Of his written work he is probably best known for his essays, "The Souls of Black Folk." Du Bois was a strong advocate of black Americans. He was a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also was very concerned with the situation of blacks from other parts of the world. He helped to initiate a movement, called Pan Africanism, to unite people of African descent and to gain independence for African colonies. Du Bois also was well known as a champion for world peace. Accompanying the text of this biography are numerous illustrations.
ED339511 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Youth Ages Sixteen and Older. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-117. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: This publication is the last of a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents. The materials offer positive images of black youth and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black youth. This guide is directed toward youth of 16 years and older. It contains brief annotations of 28 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 35 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.
ED339510 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Youth Ages Twelve to Fifteen. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: The third in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black youth, and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This third publication in the series is directed toward youth of 12 to 15 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 15 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.
ED339509 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Children Ages Eight to Eleven. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 24 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 115-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: The second in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This guide is directed toward children of 8 to 11 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 12 records and cassettes, and 10 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication or release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.
ED339508 Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black Children Ages Three to Seven. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 26 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020 116-118. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: The first of four publications in a series of resource guides containing suggested books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials provide positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This first publication in the series is directed toward children of 3 to 7 years. It contains brief annotations of about 65 books, 27 records and cassettes, and 7 films and videotapes that are appropriate for young children. Most materials have publication or release dates after 1970. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.
ED339380 Author: Roy,-Loriene, Ed. Title: Pathfinders on Black Dance in America. Publication Year:  Notes: 158 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This is a compilation of 18 pathfinders (i.e., a bibliographic instruction aid) on black dance in America, prepared by graduate students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin. The pathfinders were prepared to assist undergraduate students enrolled in a dance history class in locating information for oral presentations at a symposium on black dance. The collection of pathfinders is introduced by a description of the assignment by Loriene Roy, and a background note and outline of topics, both prepared by Ann Daly. The 18 pathfinders are grouped by six themes: Popular Entertainment; Classical Tradition; the Black Experience I (Reviving African Roots); the Black Experience II (Black Is Beautiful); Contemporary Masters; and the Social Vernacular. The individual pathfinders are entitled: (1) "Josephine Baker" (Kay Nilsson); (2) "Juba, William Henry Lane" (J'Nevelyn White); (3) "Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson" (Chris Mannix); (4) "Arthur Mitchell" (Michael McElwain); (5) "Dance Theatre of Harlem's Creole 'Giselle'" (Cathy Curren); (6) "The Harlem Renaissance" (Rob Kohler); (7) "Pearl Primus" (Cindy Lennartson); (8) "Katherine Dunham" (Rima O'Connor); (9) "Charles Moore" (Clay-Edward Dixon); (10) "Asadata Dafora Horton" (Katie Hays); (11) "Alvin Ailey" (Kathryn Hill); (12) "Donald McKayle" (Angela Dorau); (13) "Urban Bush Women" (Larry Gainor); (14) "Black American Concert Dance Pioneers: Edna Guy, Hemsley Winfield, Eugene Von Grona" (Melba Valdez); (15) "The Lindy Hop" (Linda Clark); (16) "The Hoofers Club" (Silvia Stewart); (17) "The Twist" (Jennifer Coggins); and (18) "Breakdancing" (Mimi McKay). A pathfinder evaluation sheet is appended. ED338734 Author: Parko,-Margie Title: Evaluation of the Self-Esteem through Culture Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) Program 1989-90. Report No. 15, Vol. 25. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 73 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates a program for educators, youth workers, and parents in four Atlanta (Georgia) Public Schools designed to teach African American children the positive aspects of their cultural heritage and to increase their self-esteem and desire to learn. Although the Self-Esteem Through Culture Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) program has been implemented in four schools, this evaluation covers only the two elementary schools, Woodson and Toomer, which participated for a full year. The evaluation, using an experimental/control design with approximately 600 students, involves the use of two self-esteem instruments, an analysis of Iowa Tests of Basic Skills normal curve equivalent scores in reading and total mathematics, an analysis of the results of a teacher questionnaire, and an analysis of student absences. The evaluation indicates that the instructional program has been only partially implemented. SETCLAE may have a positive effect on student self-esteem, but it has not been found to significantly affect achievement or student absences, with the exception of grade 6. Teachers disagree about whether or not the program accomplishes its goals. The program has no religious aspect and is beneficial for all students regardless of ethnic background. A list of 10 references is included. A teacher questionnaire and the SETCLAE Student Profile and sample lessons are appended.
ED338535 Title: A Curriculum of Inclusion: Report of the Commissioner's Task Force on Minorities: Equity and Excellence. Publication Year: 1989 Notes: 126 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This report reflects the work of a task force charged with examining curricular materials used by the New York State Department of Education to see if they adequately reflect the pluralistic nature of society, and to identify areas where changes or additions may be needed. The Task Force concluded that African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Ricans/Latinos, and Native Americans have been victims of curricular materials that negatively characterized or omitted the contributions of these groups to U.S. society and culture, and demonstrated a systematic bias favoring European culture and its derivatives. After highlighting some of the contributions to U.S. society by non-European cultures, the report documents how these contributions have been systematically distorted, marginalized, or omitted. The report goes on to identify some curricular materials that are of high quality, indicating that some progress has been made. Because the entire structure of the curriculum is shown to be flawed, an alternative conceptual approach is presented. The Task Force promotes the idea that all curricular materials be prepared on the basis of multicultural contributions to the development of all aspects of U.S. society. Such a balanced, integrated approach is seen as serving the interests of children from all cultures. Children from Native American, Puerto Rican/Latino, Asian American, and African American cultures will have higher self-esteem and self-respect, while children from European cultures will have a less arrogant perspective of being part of the group that has "done it all." The Task Force makes nine recommendations to accomplish what it sees as necessary reforms in New York State's curriculum, ranging from a revision of many curricular materials to a revision of teacher education and school administrator programs. Several appendices are included, featuring those that review the New York State curricular materials K-12 from the perspective of African American culture, Asian American culture, Latino culture, and Native American culture.
ED337776 Author: Holiday,-D.-Alexander Title: Street Corner Writing. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 28 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin' 'n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them mean the most. The use of repetition is an important element of the preaching of black ministers and can become a form of mimesis for the black teacher (or white teachers who wish to adopt it). Black schoolchildren also manipulate the standard forms of English. Blacks are very proficient in negation. Black Dialect is a language supported and encouraged through all facets of the community. It is a language with its own rules, structure, and meaning. The black novelist, poet, dramatist, and essayist have proven, over and over again, that they possess the skills, techniques, knowledge, and fortitude to produce works of art. In teaching black children it is important to be aware of the heroes of black America because, if any teacher is not aware of these heroes, the children are. "Students' Right to Their Own Language" (a Committee on Conference on College Composition and Communication Language Statement) should be used as an educational component for teacher preparation at whatever level of the learning spectrum. (Twenty- seven references are attached.)
ED337772 Author: DeGout,-Yasmin-Y. Title: Gender Issues and the Slave Narratives: "Incidents in the Life" and "Narrative of the Life" Compared. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Conference of MELUS, the Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (5th, Minneapolis, MN, April 11-13, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The differences between early African American narratives written by women and those written by men can be seen in a comparison of Harriet A. Jacobs's "Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself" and Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." A comparison of these works offers the greatest contrast of issues found throughout gender and autobiographical studies--issues of voice, content, ideology, and form. Douglass and Jacobs differ widely in voice, because of gender-related aspects of how voice is rendered, to whom it speaks, how much it is present, and how it is used to authenticate the speaker. Issues of ideology also surface as gender differences, both within the two texts and in the perception of them. The novelization of "Incidents" is only one element of contrast of form in the two texts. Despite their similarities--in shared themes of violence, sexual abuse, separation, religious irony, education, abolition, and demythification--the books' differences should call into question the perception of Douglass's "Narrative" as the peerless prototype of the genre. Scholars rethinking the African American literary canon may indeed need to consider that the "Narrative" finds its peer in "Incidents." Black women and black men underwent different experiences in slavery, perceived them differently, and wrote about them differently. Jacobs' achievement was the creation of a complex, contoured black woman and the depiction of her experiences in slavery. (Twenty-seven references are attached.) ED337554 Author: Bynum,- Alvin-S. Title: Black Student/White Counselor: Developing Effective Relationships. Expanded Second Edition, 1991. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 164 p.; For the first edition, see ED 293 971. EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Knowledge and practical techniques are provided to help the white college counselor develop relationships with black students that can help the students reach their full potential. A sociocultural and historical overview of the black student's world, with a review of important literature in the field, gives background that white counselors can use to create supportive environments and help students adjust to higher education. A holistic approach is advocated to recognize the influence of black family ties and the impact of black culture and tradition. A racial distance index is included to help counselors recognize and manage their own racial biases. Counselors are urged to construct a "personal action plan" by following suggestions for changing attitudes and working through the five case studies that are included. It is concluded that empathetic understanding plus a good knowledge of client social sciences will provide a springboard for effective relationship development, even when the differing conditions of race or culture enter the counseling session. Attachments present the following items: (1) a 113-item bibliography; (2) an annotated resource list of 16 works; (3) an outline of procedures for establishing a list of community resources; (4) an outline of a holistic counseling process; (5) an outline of a personal action plan; and (6) a subject and author index.
ED337438 Author: Marshall,-Patricia-L. Title: Schools, Teacher Preparation, and Afrocentricity: Is There a Possibility for Connection? Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p.; Paper presented at the National Conference of the Association of Black Women in Higher Education (Greensboro, NC, June 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Schools fail to meet the schooling needs of many nonwhite students. Afrocentricity, a new curricular movement that looks through African eyes, focuses on improving schooling experiences for African- Americans. Some proponents view it as an answer to African-American student underachievement and say it enhances self-esteem, achievement levels, ethnic pride, academic performance, and positive identity formation. This position presents two new challenges. The first is the need to analyze implications of the dissimilar demographic profiles of the current White teacher trainee force and the increasing minority public school student population. The second is to analyze the congruity between the purposes of schools within the larger society, the role of teacher preparation within the purposes, and the goals of Afrocentric curriculum. Though 20 percent of all school-aged children are from minority groups, only 5 percent of teachers are black. Researchers question the probability of a predominantly white-American teacher trainee force addressing the overall educational needs of African- American students. They suggest that African-Americans de-emphasize schools as the vehicle for helping their students come to know themselves and, instead, encourage community-based centers whose purposes are central to and more far reaching than public schools. In the context of these two challanges, the paper examines schooling needs of African-American students (writing, speaking, reading, listening, thinking, studying, and test taking).
ED336615 Author: Parker,-Franklin; Parker,-Betty-J. Title: Myles Horton (1905-90) of Highlander: Adult Educator and Southern Activist. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 17 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: As a leader of social change in the South, Myles Horton (1) unionized southern textile workers and coal miners and advanced civil rights through his Highlander school; (2) conducted Highlander workshops for black leaders; (3) first popularized the song "We Shall Overcome"; and (4) initiated Citizenship Schools to help blacks register to vote. As a youth, he questioned racial inequality. He was dismayed at unfair labor practices in a Tennessee factory and urged workers to organize. Horton wanted to create a school that would serve poor people in labor and racial strife and help them to gain freedom, dignity, and justice. Studying sociology at the University of Chicago in 1930-31, Horton recognized that conflict redirected thinking. Highlander Folk School, inspired by Danish folk schools, was opened in Monteagle, Tennessee in 1932. Horton's wife Zilphia introduced many cultural programs at Highlander. During 1953-61, as Highlander's civil rights activities increased, so did segregationist attacks on the school. Horton is remembered for his efforts to fight for a better world. (A "Myles Horton Chronology 1905-1990" and a 35-item bibliography are included.) ED336487 Author: Amuleru-Marshall,-Nancy Title: Infusion of African and African-American History and Culture into the Atlanta Public Schools' Curriculum. Evaluation Report 1988-1990. Report No. 6, Vol. 25. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 73 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: In April 1988, the Atlanta (Georgia) Public Schools initiated a plan to reconstruct the history curriculum through the infusion of African and African-American historical and cultural content. The model called for the following activities: (1) staff development; (2) curriculum revision and development; (3) acquisition and development of resources; (4) provision of enrichment activities for students; and (5) community education and involvement. In 1989, the program was piloted across grade levels in 17 schools and in selected classrooms in 7 other schools. As of October 1990, 1,318 staff members had completed the 30- hour training course, and 34 teachers had received 90 hours of training to prepare them to assist in program implementation and curriculum writing. Curriculum learning objectives were written and disseminated. At the end of the pilot year, student outcomes were generally positive, with student knowledge at a slightly higher level in pilot schools than that found in non-pilot schools. Students found the infusion content important, motivating, and a source of pride. The majority of teachers found the program important and considered that students responded favorably. Community education was cited as an area for improvement. Revitalization of the advisory committee, completion of training and curriculum delivery, and more comprehensive assessment of student knowledge and attitudes were recommended. Statistical data are presented in 10 tables. Five appendices provide details of the pilot study and the evaluation methodology.
ED336310 Author: McIntosh,-Peggy Title: Interactive Phases of Curricular and Personal Re-Vision with Regard to Race. Working Paper No. 219. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 21 p.; For related documents, see ED 244 895 and ED 335 261-262. EDRS Price - MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
ABSTRACT: Most white, middle-class citizens see society from a monocultural perspective, a perspective that assumes, often unconsciously, that persons of all races are in the same cultural system together. This single-system form of seeing the world, is blind to its own cultural specificity. People who see persons of other races monoculturally cannot imagine the reality that those "others" think of themselves not in relation to the majority race but in terms of their own culturally specific identities. This paper presents an "interactive phase theory" with regard to race that is intended to reassess school curricula in terms of heightened levels of consciousness concerning race. In the context of U.S. history courses, five phases are presented: phase one: all-white history; phase two: exceptional minority individuals in U.S. history; phase three: minority issues, or minority groups as problems, anomalies, absences, or victims in U.S. history; phase four: the lives and cultures of people of color everywhere as history; and phase five: history redefined and reconstructed to include all people.
ED335428 Author: Ihle,-Elizabeth-L. Title: Black Women in White Institutions: A Study of Ten Narratives. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 18 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 7, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper is based on 10 firsthand accounts of black women who graduated from historically white institutions. Four of the narratives came from autobiographies, those of educators Fanny Jackson and Lena Beatrice Morton, social activist Mary Church Terrell, and political activist and author Angela Davis. Three of the other accounts were taken from memoirs written for institutional histories, two were elicited by the author, and one appeared in a journal. The narratives vary in the following ways: (1) they span over a century, from the 1860s to the 1970s; (2) one was written while the author was still in college, the others at least a decade after graduating; (3) all but three women came from lower-middle-class to middle-class families; and (4) the nine institutions represented cover a wide range of geographical areas. Despite the differences in the narratives, common themes recur: (1) the importance of economic considerations in choosing a school, including availability of good scholarships and proximity to home; (2) the importance of color, much more than gender, in shaping these women's college experiences; (3) the initial hostility or skepticism from professors and the need to prove themselves academically; (4) the importance of social support systems such as sororities in determining their satisfaction with their college experience; and (5) participation of some of the women in protests against social injustice. Eleven references are included.
ED334340 Author: Ascher,-Carol Title: School Programs for African American Males. ERIC CUE Digest No. 72. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 4 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: New educational programs are attempting to meet the needs of male African American students. The new programs vary widely in approach, scope, content, and targeted age group. However, they all focus on helping African American male youth develop productive behaviors and values by bringing them into contact with African American male adults. The following components are common to most programs: (1) appropriate male models/male bonding; (2) identity/self-esteem; (3) academic values and skills; (4) parent and community strengthening; (5) transition to manhood; and (6) a safe haven. Of all the program components, those programs that have experimented with all-African, all- male classes have been the most controversial. While early evaluations indicate some success, it is too early to determine the long-term effectiveness of these programs and approaches. African American males have been called "an endangered species" and these new programs are an important attempt to help this group function productively. A list of eight references is appended.
ED334113 Author: Anderson,-Dorothea Title: An Analysis of Bloomington's African-American Community through Photographs. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 33 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Indiana Association of Historians (West Lafayette, IN, March 10, 1990). Photographs may not reproduce clearly. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Reproductions of 19 photographs that document some of the families and history of the African-American community in Bloomington, Indiana, from about 1870 to 1920, are contained in this paper. The paper discusses the use of photographs in historical inquiry, and posits that the photographic image carries the power of witness to past peoples and events. Although these photographs are specific to a particular community and historical period, the manner in which they are presented here could serve as a useful model for the documentation of the history of other communities. A list of 12 references is included.
ED333497 Author: Martindale,-Carolyn Title: Improving Images of African-Americans in the Media. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 15 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association (Pittsburgh, PA, April 25-28, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The news media are finally seeking ways to portray African- Americans and the nation's other minorities more accurately. Media executives are realizing that within the next several decades the audience for the media and the pool of potential media employees will be increasingly multi-ethnic. To make reporting more accurate, newspapers must include minorities in all coverage of issues concerning the population in general. A news staff can compile a data base of a wide variety of minority persons having expertise in various subjects. The media should avoid perpetuating stereotypes and should use anecdotes that counter stereotypes. The media should regularly run features about black culture and history, and should cover the forces that still deny equality to minorities. The media must recognize racism as a component of the problems facing minority groups and promote good relations between ethnic groups. Besides illuminating problems, the media should present solutions. More minority reporters should be brought into the mainstream media, and the knowledge and sensitivity of white journalists should be broadened. Lines of communication should be opened between the media and minority communities. Journalism educators have a vital role to play in helping bring about such changes and must make a stronger effort to interest minority students in journalism careers.
ED332931 Author: Jones,-John-A., Jr.; And-Others Title: Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 94 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage. ABSTRACT: This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are captured in the film, which takes an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating objectives and activities from social studies, science, mathematics, language arts, art, music, and vocational education. The guide also includes sections dealing with the main ideas, the historical background, narration script for the video, a timeline, content outline, a glossary, and a 32-item bibliography. An appendix features maps, puzzles, a pre- and post-test (and answers), and a number of poems.
ED332713 Author: Strasser,-Theresa-C., Comp. Title: An African- American Bibliography: Science, Medicine, and Allied Fields. Selected Resources from the Collections of the New York State Library. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 19 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The second in a series of African-American bibliographies, this bibliography was issued in honor of both Black History Month and Inventors Day in February 1991. It focuses on the contributions of black Americans in the areas of science, technology, medicine, and allied fields such as dentistry and nursing. The materials cited emphasize the accomplishments of individuals from all parts of the United States, in all periods, and from all backgrounds. The bibliography lists items in the collections of the New York State Library and includes books, selected periodical articles, patents, and other materials. New York State Library call numbers are given for the books and periodicals to facilitate both library retrieval and interlibrary loan. Patent documents are filed numerically and are part of the patent depository collection of the New York State Library. It is noted that no more than three patents are given for each inventor for reasons of space.
ED331803 Author: Goodman,-Marcia-Renee Title: Cooling Hot Topics. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 37 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This paper explores questions about why high school English teachers do and do not teach works that they consider to be controversial. It examines the barriers, both internal and external, that these teachers experience and how they perceive the barriers. The teachers were nine participants in a summer university seminar for teachers which focused on Alice Walker's novel, "The Color Purple." Data consisted of materials that the nine teachers produced during the seminar; interviews with them a year and a half after the class; and informal conversations, interchanges, and observations. Analysis of the data revealed that when confronted with teaching controversial material, some teachers experienced emotional anxiety which reflected their own beliefs and fears about the issues in question, fear of disciplinary action by school authorities, concern about students' ability to handle controversial material, and concern about their own ability to present the material adequately. If teachers are to remain engaged and active throughout their careers, it is necessary to find ways to support them in their efforts to bring more realities into the classroom, including emotional realities.
ED331688 Author: Roark-Calnek,-Sue Title: Passages: A Celebration of Migrant Arts. A Guide to the  Exhibition. Publication Year: 1991 Notes: 22 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This booklet accompanied a 1991 exhibition of migrant arts, mounted by CAMPS (Creative Artists Migrant Program Services) and an ongoing program of collection and documentation research on migrant folk arts at the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. There are four passages in migrant lives: through historical time, through space, through the seasons of nature, and through the cycles of life. This exhibit traces passages in the arts of four migrant groups: Mexican, Algonquin Native, Haitian, and African Americans. African American migrant art celebrates the passage of historical time out of Africa though slavery to freedom. Today ancient African traditions are adapted to life on the migrant stream, as wood found on the way is carved into walking canes--symbols of traditional authority--and camp rappers and poets emulate traditional African praise singers. Haitian art evokes the passage by water in carefully detailed drawings of boats, which are also a powerful protective Voodoo symbol. Other protective spiritual images found in Haitian art are the skeletal male figure with split color hands and checkerboard patterns of vivid colors. Algonquin art celebrates nature and the turn of the seasons, and includes woodcarvings of images of the bush and floral designs on baskets, beadwork, and embroidery. Mexican and Mexican-American art, often related to ceremonies marking passage through the life cycle, includes decorations of flowers and cut and folded paper as well as leathercraft and paintings.
ED331050 Author: Hutton,-Frankie Title: Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 36 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (Minneapolis, MN, August 1-4, 1990). EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal," "The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive during the pre-Civil War years. The messages common to the black press and women were concerned primarily with the vindication and uplift of people of color. The relationship between the black press and black women was not oppressive but symbiotic, as the black press brought benefits to black women, and the women, in turn, brought financial and editorial support to the black press. Led by such men as Samuel Cornish, John Brown Russwurm, Frederick Douglas, David Ruggles, and Thomas Hamilton, the antebellum press was a forum for the social thought of women of color, daring to publish a variety of their literary, sociopolitical, moral and controversial commentary. Furthermore, the content of black newspapers and magazines depicted black women individually and collectively as concerned, expansive, socially aware and responsible, bearing witness to the fact that no other group of antebellum women worked with such spirit and persistence, in the face of so much despair and racism, to overcome so much--including unsavory images, oppression, slavery, and exploitation. This broader and more positive view of the black press regarding women should be taught in journalism history classes. (Forty-two footnotes are included.)
ED330503 Author: Neyland,-Leedell-W. Title: Historically Black Land- Grant Institutions and the Development of Agriculture and Home Economics, 1890-1990. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 356 p.; "With special assistance from Esther Glover Fahm." EDRS Price - MF01/PC15 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Since 1890, historically black land-grant colleges and universities have delivered quality teaching, research, and extension service primarily to black people in Southern and border states. The Second Morrill Act of 1890 required that all land-grant funds be equitably divided in states that maintained separate schools for races. Tuskeegee University and 17 other institutions were directly affected by this act. Beginning primarily for training black teachers, these institutions evolved into land-grant colleges and universities providing opportunities to students across the nation and throughout the world. Known as the 1890 colleges and universities, these Southern institutions have developed research capabilities and an extensive extension service. The nine chapters of this book trace the development of the 1890 land grant colleges and universities between 1890 and 1990 and outline the challenges of the future. Appendices include the text of the 1890 Second Morrill Act, home economics-related classes at 1890 Colleges and universities, and profiles of 1890 land-grant institutions. An index is included and the bibliography contains over 250 references.
ED328920 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Literary and Rhetorical Influences of the Black American Folk Tradition. Publication Year:  Notes: 24 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Instruction in rhetoric, English composition, and literature can be enhanced if black language and the stylistic influences of the black folk tradition are recognized and presented in the classroom. Teachers need to be aware of the history and heritage of the Black- American dialect and the black folk tradition. In addition, teachers and students need to be aware of the vocabulary of black language, its historical development, and its contributions to mainstream English. Also of importance is the style of black language, which developed from a combination of sacred and secular traditions. This style can be seen in the "persuasive techniques" used in black literature, including punning or playing on words, extemporaneous or spontaneous expressions, indirection or innuendo, metaphorical images, boasting or bragging. Typical narrative devices include toasting, call and response, signifying and sounding. The literary and rhetorical types of the Black- American folk oral tradition can add a great deal to the classrooms in that they represent a direct expression of the Black-American experience from the colonial period to the present. Thirteen references and a list describing the forms and literary types in the Afro-American Folk Tradition are appended.
ED328919 Author: Anderson,-Edward Title: Some Ways To Use the Rhetorical Skills of the Black American Folk Tradition To Teach Rhetoric and Composition. Publication Year:  Notes: 38 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: Focusing on black communication skills in the classroom can be rewarding, instructional, and motivational for both black and white students when educators begin to build upon the effectiveness of black language patterns and usages. This packet of curriculum materials was designed for class, group, and individual instruction in the use of black folk types and features (i.e., folk song-types, black folk sermons, black folk verbal strategies, folk literature by known Black- American authors, and non-standard English dialects). In addition to lists of African-American types of folk literature (e.g., story telling, folk sermons, and blues), African-American verbal strategies (e.g., rapping, jiving, and sounding), the stylistic and thematic features of Black-American folk tradition, important terms, the packet includes general and specific suggestions regarding instructional activities that use folk songs, spirituals, jokes, folk sermons, and literary works to teach about the effective use of dialects and language styles, and about rhetoric and composition. In addition, oral and written assignments, a selected bibliography, and 43 references are provided.
ED328647 Author: Laughrey,-Michael-C. Title: The Design and Implementation of a Mentor Program To Improve the Academic Achievement of Black Male High School Students. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 59 p.; Educational Specialist Practicum Report, Nova University. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: This practicum paper describes the design and implementation of a mentoring program to improve the academic achievement of black male urban high school students. The program utilizes black adult mentors from both the community and the school's faculty. Mentors function as role models, advisers, and resource persons. The program design includes the following components: (1) a school-based committee responsible for program implementation and for identifying student participants; (2) training for mentors; (3) periodic progress reports prepared by mentors; (4) after-school tutoring; (5) small group counseling; (6) career planning; and (7) program evaluation based on improvement in student test scores. Most of the program was funded from the regular school budget, with supplementary funds provided by the Parent Teachers Association. The program did not meet its overall goals for improving student test scores by one full point, perhaps because the target was unrealistic. However, participants did show improvement in attendance, test results, and postgraduation planning. The following materials are appended: (1) a list of 18 references; (2) 6 tables of statistical data; (3) a student progress report form; and (4) a mentor handbook developed by the school committee.
ED328364 Author: Rolle,-Sandra Title: Raising the Level of Self- Concept, Attitudes, and Academic Achievement of Black Male Students, Ages 8-12, through Art and Cultural Heritage Materials. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 109 p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University. Samples of children's writing may not copy well. EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: An experienced art teacher working with students in grades two through six implemented and evaluated a practicum intervention designed to improve the self-images of male black students, their academic accomplishments, and their feelings of pride in their school. Five actions were taken to attain the objective: (1) cultural materials produced by blacks were integrated into the art curriculum; (2) artwork of black students was displayed in the school and community; (3) seminars on parenting for black parents were developed and implemented with the assistance of the school counselor; (4) role models from various professions spoke of or demonstrated their talents; and (5) faculty were given research literature on black children's learning styles and black culture, family, and achievements. Evaluation data indicated that the intervention was mainly successful. Students increased their self-confidence and classroom competence. However, in some teachers' opinions there was less student improvement in academic effort and classroom behavior. Students improved in attitudes toward school, school subjects, and studying, and parents became more involved in their children's school. Measures used, and other related materials, are appended.
ED328250 Author: Churchville,-Lida-Holland, Comp. Title: ALIC Acquisitions List Covering the Period October 1, 1989 to March 31, 1990. Volume 1990(1), Issue 9. Publication Year: 1990 Notes: 60 p. EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
ABSTRACT: The Archives Library Information Center (ALIC) acquisition list provides sources of information on a wide range of topics, including military, black history, and government archives, collection development policy, classification of nonprint media, archival preservation and access, electronic records management, and other facets of information preservation. Each entry is listed by ALIC accession number and provides the document's author, publication and archival source, publication date, and the number of pages. A total of 324 items are listed. Both an author-sponsor and a subject index are included.